mercoledì 29 ottobre 2008

PUNISHMENTS

Here are some examples of how legionaries were punished.

Minor punishments consisted in a fine, or in eating barley bread (that caused stomach-ache), or also in staying standing for a whole day outside the sleeping quarters, holding an object in hands.
Decimation was an extreme instrument of military discipline, imposed to entire divisions of the ancient Roman army to punish mutinies or acts of cowardice, killing a soldier every ten.
The word derives from the Latin “decimatio”, which meant “eliminating one every ten”.
The cohort which must be punished by decimation was divided in groups of ten legionaries; every one of these groups chose by chance one of its components, who was lapidated or beat by his companions.
As the castigation was completely casual, every soldier in the punished cohort risked death, regardless of military rank or tasks. Consequently, the thread of decimation, apart from scaring, obliged the legionaries to keep a determined behaviour in battles.
However, as the application of decimation reduced the strength of the division of ten percent, probably it was inflicted very rarely.

PUNIZIONI

Ecco degli esempi di come i legionari potevano essere puniti.

Le punizioni minori consistevano in una multa, far mangiare pane d'orzo ( che causava mal di stomaco), stare in piedi per un giorno intero fuori dalla "camerata" con un oggetto in mano.

La decimazione era uno strumento estremo di disciplina militare comminato ad interi reparti negli eserciti dell'antica Roma per punire ammutinamenti o atti di codardia, uccidendo un soldato ogni dieci. La parola deriva dal latino decimatio che significava "eliminare uno ogni dieci". La coorte che si voleva punire per decimazione era divisa in gruppi di 10 legionari; ciascun gruppo sceglieva a sorte uno di loro che veniva ucciso dagli altri commilitoni per lapidazione o a bastonate.
Poiché la punizione colpiva a caso, tutti i soldati della coorte punita correvano il rischio di essere uccisi, indipendentemente dal grado o dai compiti svolti. Di conseguenza la minaccia della decimazione oltre che spaventare obbligava i legionari a mantenere un comportamento risoluto in battaglia. Tuttavia, poiché l'applicazione della decimazione riduceva in un sol colpo la forza del reparto del dieci percento, si crede che essa fosse comminata molto raramente.

ONORIFICENZE

Spolia opima (in latino letteralmente "bottino abbondante") si riferisce all'armatura, alle armi e agli altri effetti che un generale romano aveva tratto come trofeo dal corpo del comandante nemico ucciso in singola tenzone. Benché i Romani riconoscessero e mettessero in mostra altre specie di trofei - quali le insegne ed i rostri delle navi nemiche -, le spolia opima erano considerate le più onorevoli da vincere e quelle che davano maggior fama a chi le conquistava.

Il trionfo era il massimo onore che nell'antica Roma veniva tributato con una cerimonia solenne al generale che avesse conseguito un'importante vittoria. Consisteva in un corteo formato dalle truppe vittoriose con alla testa il triumphator, il trionfatore.

La corona castrense (latino: corona castrensis, "corona d'accampamento"), detta anche corona vallare (latino: corona vallaris, "corona di vallo") era una corona romana utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero. Spettava al primo uomo che avesse scalato le fortificazioni di una accampamento nemico. La corona era realizzata in oro, in foggia di palizzata accuminata, tipica dei valli difensivi degli accampamenti.

La corona civica o corona di quercia (latino: corona querquensis) era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero romano, spettante a chi avesse salvato la vita a un cittadino romano. Realizzata in forma di serto di quercia, più anticamente leccio o ippocastano, la corona civica era la seconda onorificenza militare in ordine di importanza, dopo la corona obsidionalis, ed era assegnata a quel soldato che avesse salvato la vita di un cittadino romano in battaglia; recava la scritta Ob civem servatum. L'ottenimento di questa corona era un grande onore, ed era conseguentemente regolato da condizioni restrittive: per ottenere la corona il soldato doveva salvare un cittadino romano in battaglia, uccidere il nemico e mantenere la posizione occupata fino alla fine della battaglia. Non era possibile impiegare la testimonianza di un terzo, ma solo quella del cittadino salvato: questa condizione rendeva difficile l'ottenimento della corona, in quanto i soldati romani non erano inclini a riconoscere il gesto del loro camerata, in quanto sarebbero poi stati obbligati a portare loro deferenza.

La corona muraria (latino: corona muralis), detta anche corona turrita, quando vi compaiano anche delle torri stilizzate, era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero romano. Era il massimo simbolo di valore militare e spettava al primo uomo che avesse scalato le fortificazioni di una città nemica. La corona era realizzata in oro, in foggia di cinta muraria merlata e turrita. Era una delle maggiori onorificenze militari ed era assegnata solo dopo attenta indagine per individuare a chi spettasse il primato nella scalata delle mura. Tutt'oggi corone murarie sono utilizzate nell'araldica urbana e amministrativa di numerosi paesi.

La corona navale (latino: corona navalis o corona classica, da classis, cioè flotta), detta anche corona rostrata, era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero, spettante a chi avesse per primo arrembato una nave nemica o ad un ammiraglio vittorioso che avesse distrutto la flotta avversaria.

La corona ossidionale (latino: corona obsidionalis), detta anche corona d'erba (latino: corona graminea), era una corona romana usata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero. Era il massimo simbolo di valore militare e spettava al comandante che avesse salvato un esercito assediato o a colui che avesse, con il proprio intervento, salvato un esercito dalla sicura distruzione. La corona era realizzata da un serto d'erba o fiori selvatici intrecciati, colti nei pressi del campo di battaglia, riprendendo in questo la consuetudine arcaica di premiare il vincitore nelle gare atletiche con una manciata d'erba del terreno di gara.

PUBLIO SESTIO BACULO (ENGLISH)

Here is what is known about Publius Sextius Baculus (the Roman name I chose for the role game).

Publius Sextus Baculus is a historical figure, who lived at the time of Julius Caesar. He was his Primus Pilus during the Gallic war and to him he was faithful until death (Baculus desperately tried to save Caesar from the conspiracy that, later, was successful in killing him at March Ides).


The following are some extracts from “De bello gallico” concerning Baculus.

Caesar proceeded, after encouraging the tenth legion, to the right wing; where he perceived that his men were hard pressed, and that in consequence of the standards of the twelfth legion being collected together in one place, the crowded soldiers were a hinderance to themselves in the fight; that all the centurions of the fourth cohort were slain, and the standard- bearer killed, the standard itself lost, almost all the centurions of the other cohorts either wounded or slain, and among them the chief centurion of the legion P. Sextius Baculus, a very valiant man, who was so exhausted by many and severe wounds, that he was already unable to support himself; he likewise perceived that the rest were slackening their efforts, and that some, deserted by those in the rear, were retiring from the battle and avoiding the weapons; that the enemy [on the other hand] though advancing from the lower ground, were not relaxing in front, and were [at the same time] pressing hard on both flanks; he also perceived that the affair was at a crisis, and that there was not any reserve which could be brought up, having therefore snatched a shield from one of the soldiers in the rear (for he himself had come without a shield), he advanced to the front of the line, and addressing the centurions by name, and encouraging the rest of the soldiers, he ordered them to carry forward the standards, and extend the companies, that they might the more easily use their swords. On his arrival, as hope was brought to the soldiers and their courage restored, while every one for his own part, in the sight of his general, desired to exert his utmost energy, the impetuosity of the enemy was a little checked.”


P. Sextius Baculus, who had led a principal century under Caesar (of whom we have made mention in previous engagements), had been left an invalid in the garrison, and had now been five days without food. He, distrusting his own safety and that of all, goes forth from his tent unarmed; he sees that the enemy are close at hand and that the matter is in the utmost danger; he snatches arms from those nearest, and stations himself at the gate. The centurions of that cohort which was on guard follow him; for a short time they sustain the fight together. Sextius faints, after receiving many wounds; he is with difficulty saved, drawn away by the hands of the soldiers. This space having intervened, the others resume courage so far as to venture to take their place on the fortifications and present the aspect of defenders.”


When they had now been fighting for more than six hours, without cessation, and not only strength, but even weapons were failing our men, and the enemy were pressing on more rigorously, and had begun to demolish the rampart and to fill up the trench, while our men were becoming exhausted, and the matter was now brought to the last extremity, P. Sextius Baculus, a centurion of the first rank, whom we have related to have been disabled by severe wounds in the engagement with the Nervii, and also C. Volusenus, a tribune of the soldiers, a man of great skill and valour, hasten to Galba, and assure him that the only hope of safety lay in making a sally, and trying the last resource. Whereupon assembling the centurions, he quickly gives orders to the soldiers to discontinue the fight a short time, and only collect the weapons flung [at them], and recruit themselves after their fatigue, and afterward, upon the signal being given, sally forth from the camp, and place in their valour all their hope of safety.”

martedì 28 ottobre 2008

MILITARY DECORATIONS

Spolia opima (or "rich spoils/trophies") refers to the armor, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general had stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single, hand-to-hand combat. Though the Romans recognized and put on display other sorts of trophies--such as standards and the beaks of enemy ships--spolia opima were considered the most honorable to have won and brought great fame to their captor.

A Roman triumph (triumphus, Old Latin triumpus, attested as the exclamation TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via Etruscan from the Greek θρίαμβος) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. Men who had received this accolade were called triumphators.

The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. During the Roman Republic, and the subsequent Principate, it was regarded as the second highest military decoration a citizen could aspire to (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard). It was reserved for men who saved the lives of fellow soldiers, and held the ground upon which he did this for the remainder of the engagement.

The Grass Crown or Blockade Crown (Latin: corona obsidionalis or corona graminea) was the highest and rarest of all military decorations in the Roman Republic and early Roman empire. It was presented only to a general or commander who broke the blockade around a beleaguered Roman army, thus saving a legion or the entire army. The crown was made from plant materials taken from the battlefield, including grasses, flowers, weeds, and various cereals, such as wheat; it was presented to the general by the army he had saved.

The Roman corona muralis (Latin: "walled crown") as used in antiquity was a golden crown, or a circle of gold intended to resemble a battlement, bestowed upon the soldier who first climbed the wall of a besieged city or fortress to successfully place the standard of the attacking army upon it.[2] The Roman mural crown was made of gold, and decorated with turrets[3], as is the heraldic version. Being one of the highest orders of military decorations, it was not awarded to a claimant until after a strict investigation.

The Castrensis crown was a decoration bestowed upon the soldier who first entered in the fortifications of an enemy castra. The crown was made by gold and looked like a palisade.

The Naval Crown (in Latin corona navalis), was a gold crown awarded to the first man who boarded an enemy ship during a naval engagement. In style, the crown was made of gold and surmounted with the beaks of ships. In heraldry a naval crown is mounted atop the shields of coats of arms of the naval vessels and other units belonging to some navies.

Publio Sestio Baculo (ITALIAN)

Eccovi quello che si sa di Publio Sestio Baculo, (nome romano da me scelto per il nostro gioco di ruolo).
Publio Sestio Baculo è un personaggio storico, contemporaneo di Caio Giulio Cesare. Era il suo Primus Pilus dalle guerre galliche e gli è rimasto fedelissimo fino alla morte (cercò disperatamente di salvare Cesare dal complotto che poi gli causò la morte).
Eccovi alcuni estratti presi dal De bello gallico in cui si parla di lui:

"Cesare, che dopo aver esortato la X legione, si era portato all'ala destra, come vide i suoi incalzare ed i soldati intralciarsi a vicenda, perché le insegne della XII legione erano state ammassate in un sol luogo, tutti i centurioni della quarta coorte erano stati uccisi, caduto il vessillifero perduta l'insegna, quasi tutti i centurioni delle altre legioni caduti o feriti, e tra questi il primipilo Publio Sestio Baculo, un uomo coraggiosissimo, così coperto di gravi ferite da non riuscire più a reggersi in piedi, mentre gli altri erano senza forze e non pochi della retroguardia, abbandonato il combattimento, si allontanavano per schivare i proiettili, mentre i nemici non smettevano di avanzare frontalmente rimontando il colle, né alleggerivano la pressione sui fianchi; come vide che la situazione era critica e che non aveva nessuna possibilità di mandare rinforzi, preso lo scudo ad uno dei soldati della retroguardia, perché era venuto sin là senza scudo, avanzò in prima linea e, chiamando per nome i centurioni, spronando gli altri soldati, ordinò di far avanzare le insegne e distanziare i manipoli, di modo che i nostri potessero più agevolmente maneggiare le spade. La sua comparsa riaccese la speranza nei soldati e li rianimò, perché ciascuno, pur trovandosi in una situazione di estremo pericolo, voleva dar prova del proprio valore al cospetto del suo generale: così si poté in parte contenere l'assalto."

"Era stato lasciato nel presidio, malato, Publio Sestio Baculo, che era stato centurione primipilo sotto Cesare, del quale abbiamo fatto menzione a proposito delle precedenti battaglie, ed erano già quattro giorni che non prendeva cibo. Questi, preoccupato per la propria e per la comune salvezza, esce inerme dalla tenda, vede che i nemici ci sono addosso e che la situazione e gravissima, afferra le armi da chi gli stava accanto e si piazza davanti alla porta. I centurioni della coorte di guardia lo seguono e, per un po', tutti insieme, reggono all'assalto. Ferito gravemente, Sestio perde i sensi e, trascinato a fatica a braccia, svenuto, viene messo in salvo. Nel frattempo gli altri prendono coraggio quanto basta per prendere posizione sulle fortificazioni e dare almeno l'impressione di essere dei difensori."

"
Publio Sestio Baculo, centurione primipilo, che già citammo nella battaglia contro i Nervi, aveva subito parecchie ferite e così pure Gaio Voluseno, tribuno, uomo sia di grande saggezza, sia di grande valore accorrono (da Galba) e mostrano [che] una sola è la speranza di salvezza: tentare il tutto per tutto con una sortita. [avendo] fatto improvvisamente una sortita da tutte le porte non lasciano ai nemici [nemmeno] la facoltà di capire cosa (stesse succedendo) né di raccogliere i loro caduti. Uccisi più di un terzo dei nemici, mettono in fuga i rimanenti che erano atteriti."

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK3

This week the winner is Alekso Minotaur that won the "Last man standing" at the training last Friday.
This time was hard to choose the winner, I am very happy that many people was at the training.

mercoledì 22 ottobre 2008

Different outfits for SL Legionaires rank by rank

Here there are the different outfits that are present in the Legio. To have a new one you have to be promoted.

RECRUIT OUTFIT: it has no armour and helm and it has wodden gladius and shield

SIMPLE MILITES OUTFIT: it has an armour, a simple helm, real gladius, metal shield, and a belt.

DECURION OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because Decurio can dress a cloack with the armour and he has the particular crested helm.

OPTIO OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the particular helm. It has also the reversed scabbard, as officer.


CENTURIO OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the particular helm, the chain mail with medals on it, the balteus (different belt from the others), the graves. Centurio can dress also an armour when he wants.

PRIMUS OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the light golden helm and the different balteus.

lunedì 20 ottobre 2008

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK 2

Another week is past and so... here it is the second Legionaire of the week nomination!
The winner is.... Revo Morales, who was also promoted from Recruit to Milites.
He was both at the Triumph and at the training of Friday.
Picture coming soon....

lunedì 13 ottobre 2008

SIGNUM HUNT AND TRIUMPH

TO ALL LEGIONARIES AND AUXILIARY UNITS:

AFTER THE BATTLE OF THE SIGNUM BARBARIANS LEAVED THE VILLAGE, IT'S TIME NOW TO SEARCH AND GET BACK OUR SIGNUM.
IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO HAVE IT BACK, BECAUSE WE WILL CARRY IT IN THE TRIUMPH.


SIGNUM HUNT wednesday 15th october, 1pm slt
TRIUMPH thursday 16th october, 1pm slt


YOU DONT NEED TO SIGN UP FOR THE SIGNUM HUNT, JUST ATTEND AT THE ROMAN FORT IN BRITANNIA (YEOL SIM).
YOU NEED TO SIGN UP FOR THE TRIUMPH, SO THAT WE CAN GIVE YOU ISTRUCTIONS, TO SIGN UP, CLICK ON THE SCROLL (SIGN UP BOARD) AT OUR LEGION FORT IN OSTIA (TRANSTIBERIM SIM), OR RSVP ACHILLE BACK OR SPACIVA IVANOVA.

________________________________________________________________________

SIGNUM HUNT RULES:

THE RESEARCH WILL BE ORGANIZED IN TEAMS, AN OFFICER WILL LEAD A GROUP OF MILITES AND GIVE ISTRUCTIONS, MILITES WILL HAVE TO OBSERVE THE ORDERS.

THE REASEARCH HAS TO LOOK REAL, THIS MEANS DONT JUMP AROUND LIKE KANGAROOS, DONT CHEAT USING THE CAMERA CONTROL, ACT LIKE THE ANCIENT LEGIONARY AS YOU ARE.


HOW TO GET THE SIGNUM:

ONCE YOU WILL FIND THE SIGNUM, BUY IT FOR 0L$, THEN TAKE IT. ANNOUNCE IT IMMEDIATLY TO YOUR TEAM LEADER. THE TEAM LEADER WILL REPORT IT TO THE HUNT ORGANIZER.


PRIZES:

THE SOLDIER THAT WILL FIND THE SIGNUM WILL HAVE THE GREAT HONOR TO CARRY IT DURING THE TRIUMPH AND WILL RECIVE ALSO A MONEY PRIZE OF 1000L$.

____________________________________________________________________________

IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTION, CONTACT Achille Back or Brodbiz Bagration

MILITARY STRATEGIES



WEDGE FORMATION: line thinned to provicde concentration in centre to smash through enemy lines.

SINGLE LINE DEFENCE: maniples all deployed in a single line to overlap enemy flanks and protect own flanks.

CANNAE TACTIC (WEAK CENTER): center left weak deliberately to envite enemy center to attack and envelopment. Require a tactical reserve behind apparently weak center.

ZAMA TACTIC: channels left beetween maniples for specific propouse of directing enemy war elephants away from the heavy infantry.

STRONG RIGHT FLANK: Strenght would be concentrated on the right flank, wich would attemp to break enemy left flank,and than roll up the line attacking the enemys from the rear.

PROTECTED FLANK: one flank protected by a natural barrier. Light infantry and cavallery all concentrated on the opposit flank.

THE ROMAN ARMY

I would like to make a very short description of the Roman army. Basicaly, there were two "kinds" of army units, from a geographical point of view: the army from Roma and the army from the provinces.
THIS IS ABOUT THE ARMY IN ROME

In Rome, there were three kind of units:

- the praetorian cohortes
- the cohorttes urbanes
- the cohortes of vigiles

PRAETORIAN COHORTES:
- elite troops, defending the emperor; they had a big monthly earn.
- they were commanded by 1 o 2 praefecti praetorio, of equestrian rank, under the direct emperor's orders.
- commanding officers:
- 1 tribune
- 6 centuriones, of a lower rank
- 1 centurion (trecenarius) - of a higher rank, who commanded 300 speculatores - the emperor's personal guard
- 1 princeps castrorum
- in the cohortes there were also knights (equites)

In 27 BC, Augustus creates 9 cohortes (I - IX), and in 2 BC, the praefectus praetorio. Tiberius will make on the Esquilin an auxiliary camp, of 16 ha. The praetorian cohortes took part in the civil wars from 68 - 69 AD; Vitellius will increase their number to 16, but Vespasian will lower them again to 9.
They had a role in Commodus' assassination in 192. Septimius Severus will reorganize them, so in the 3rd century their role will fade. In 312, after the reform of Maxentius, Constantine the Great will dissmiss them.

COHORTES URBANES:

Mainly within the cities; Augustus created in 13 AD these troops, in Rome were 3 cohortes, in Lugdunum and Carthago, 2.
They were in charge with the city guard. In the first century, they were lead by:
- the praefectus Urbis (senatorial rank)
- 1 tribune
- 6 centuriones
Their power was of 500 to 1000 men (the maximum of 1000 under Septimius Severus).
In 20 AD, they were camped in the praetorian camp until the reign of Aurelianus (270 - 275), then they were moved in Castra Urbana (on the Mars field) until the 6th century AD.

THE COHORTES OF VIGILES:

Augustus created 7 cohortes, for being a night police and firemen.
Until the 3rd century, they were not considered as soldiers.
They were commanded by a praefectus vigilium, of an equestrian rank, helped by sub-prefect.
In the 3rd century AD, they were about 1000 men.

The emperors created also other troops for their personal security:

custodes: about 500 soldiers (Germans and barbarians), created by Augustus. They were knights, commanded by 1 decurion and 1 tribune.
speculatores: 300 personal guards, camped in the praetorian camp, under the command of the praefuctus praetorio.
equites singulares Augusti: the emperor's guard, organized by Trajan as a numerus (an auxiliary troop), with 500 to 1000 men, commanded by decuriones, princeps decurion and a tribunus. They were under the command of the praefectus praetorio.
frumentarii: organized by Trajan, they were carrying letters and orders, but also spyes. They were a subdivion of a numerus, and in number of about 100 men.
statores Augusti: organized like a numerus, they were a military police.

ABOUT THE ARMY OUT OF ROMA DURING THE EMPIRE OF AUGUSTUS
The Legio was based on a cohors that was formed by 3 Manipuli (astati,principi e triari) positionated in 3 lines:
1 in the first line there were the ASTATI that was the youngest, more impetuous and exuberant; therefore more suited to the first collision although less experienced in the use of weapons, manoeuvre and less resilient and tenacious. The ASTATI had a great semi-cylindrical shield (SCUTUM) high around 1.30 m. and 0.80 m wide, covered with leather and reinforced iron edges. They had also two lances launched by 20 - 30 meters above the enemy before the collision: (PILUM) and GLADIO (short double-edged weapon). They used to wear metal helmet and a pectoral, whether they could afford even a shell: the Lorica Segmentata. This while maintaining the free movement of the torso and arms, was a heavy protection that penalized the fighter. the Segmentata offered a good protection against the most hits of arrows and swords, especially coming from above. But its structure made it difficult to manage during the time, for that reason in the late period it was not used anymore.

2 in the second there were more mature soldiers, the PRINCIPES that completed in experience and consistency what the first line missed. They represented the best of the Roman Army. They were armed and "armoured" similarly, but instead of carrying javelins, they used longer lances (HASTA)

3. in the third there were veterans, TRIARI, choosen of many battles that expected, with a knee on the ground, the outcome of the battle. They were armed in the same way as Principes.

These 3 groups were the heavy infantry of the Roman Empire. The rest of the army was made up of lightweight infantry (Veliti) and the cavalry.

Each soldier had to take a "survival kit" consisting of: roll, coat, 3 days food rations, bronze tin, pan for water, wicker basket to collect the earth, accepts, picket to excavate the trenches and build fortifications, everything had a total weight of 40 kg.

The strength of the Roman Empire was also the ability to make ingenieristiche works, such as bridges, fortifications or siege machines in a short time.

SIEGE MACHINES
The balista (Latin ballista, in derived from the greek ballistēs, from ballo "pull") it is a big siege machine invented by the Greeks and mainly used by the Romans. It throwed big darts or javelins or spherical stones individually or for small groups, depending on the type of model.

siege towers

Catapulte

domenica 12 ottobre 2008

EQUIPMENT OF THE LEGIONAIRES

*The Lorica in one of its variants: Lorica hamata, Lorica squamata, Lorica segmentata, Lorica musculata were designed to be flexible but robust.
* One or scutum shield (with special decorations for each unit)
* A balteus or Cingulum militaris (belt to hold weapons and for decoration)
* A helmet, called cassis (with protections for neck and ears). The helmet could also have a crest, and usually for petty officers.
* The gladius Gladio or a sword with a blade about 50-55 cm long, the weapon par excellence of the Roman legionary, to the right of the belt.
* The pilum or the javelin, who had the task after the launch of thrust in the shield's opponent who was forced to make private and therefore beneficial to the body for Legionnaires' body.
* The pugio dagger that was brought to balteus hooked.
* Caligae or sandals that is by running and a red tunic was common to all the legionnaires.



Lorica Hamata; Lorica Squamata; Lorica Segmentata; Lorica Muscolata



Scutum; Balteus with Pugio; Gladius


Pilum


Cassis; Decurio Cassis; Optio Cassis; Centurio Cassis


Caligae

THIS SPACE IS FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE LEGIO

Dear members, here it is a space where you are able to write every suggestions, qaestions or news about the Legio. Use the "commenti" link (just on the right of the time of the pubblication of the post) to write. I am waiting for reading you all.

sabato 11 ottobre 2008

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK

Everyone from today every week will be nominated the Legionaire of the week. Every Saturaday I will post the name and the picture of who acted better or was more usefull for our group.
This week, for the great work done for organize the battle the nomination goes to Achille Back.

LATIN DRILLS FOR THE TRAININGS

Mandata captate: Literally, “observe the orders.” This is the command we use for “attention!” You stand straight, eyes front, shield held by its grip in the left hand, pilum held vertically in the right first just below the square block.

Laxate: “At ease.” You may set your shield down and rest the butt spike of your pilum on the ground. No slouching or chattering, though!

Ad gladium, clina: [cleena] To the right (sword side), face! Push off with your left toe, pivot on your right heel, and turn smartly to the right.

Ad scutum, clina: To the left (shield side), face! Reverse of the above.

Accelera: Speed up.

Tarda: Slow down

Sta: Halt. Stop on the second step after the command is uttered.

Dimitto: Dismissed.

LEGIO ACTIVITIES

The Legio group makes trainings and fights. We have games and tournaments like "last man standing", "catch the enemy flag", "treasure hunt". We have also to controll that noone will violate the laws of Roma and of our group. We reprouduct the ancient festivities with ceremonies.
We have an event every Friday at 22.00 European central time, 1 PM SL time.
Here it is the link to our fort
http://slur.com/secondlife/ROMA%20Transtiberim/127/204/42
Just copy the address and paste it on the address bar of Internet Explorer (or other browser) and go to the page. You will have only to click and you will recive the landmark of the fort in your inventory in Second Life.

HISTORY OF REAL LEGIO XIII

Under the late Republic
Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts.
During the Gallic wars (58-51 BC), Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the siege of Gergovia, and while not specifically mentioned in the sources, it is not unreasonable to assume that Legio XIII was also present for the Battle of Alesia.
After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, and demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career, or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy. The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Dyrrhachium (48 BC) and Pharsalus (48 BC). After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, and the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants. However, the legion was recalled for the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) and the final Battle of Munda (45 BC). After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, and gave them farmlands in Italy.

Under the Empire
Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with rebellion of Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey) in Sicily.
Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina ("twin", a common appellation for legions constituted from portions of others) after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium.[2] Augustus then sent the legion to Burnum (modern Knin), in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea.
In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona (now Ljubljana) in Pannonia, where they dealt with local rebellions.
After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelica (Augsburg), Germania Superior, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.
Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45; the legion camped at Poetovio (modern Ptuj, Slovenia).
In the year of the four emperors (69), XIII Gemina supported first Otho and then Vitellius, two of the defeated emperors, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum.
Under Trajan the Legion took part in both Dacian wars (101-102, 105-106), and it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia (in Apulum, modern Alba Iulia, Romania) to garrison it.
Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy. The emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, and showing the legion's lion (259-260).[3] Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem.[4]
In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, and restationed in Dacia Aureliana.
In the 5th century, according to Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.[5]

ITALIANO
La Legio XIII Gemini fu cretata da Giulio Cesare nel 57 a.C., in vista della campagna contro le popolazione belgiche, in uno dei suoi primi interventi nei conflitti interni alle popoolazioni galliche.
Durante le guerre galliche (58 a.C.-51 a.C.) la legione partecipò alla battaglia contro i Nervi, all'assedio di Gergovia, e anche se le fonti non la citano, è ragionevole pensare che la XIII Gemini partecipasse anche alla battaglia di Alesia.
Dopo le campagne in Gallia, il Senato romano rifiutò il secondo consolato, intimandogli di abbandonare il comando delle legioni e di ritornare a Roma per affrontare il giudizio del senato. Costretto a decidere se abbandonare la sua carriera politica o causare una guerra civile, Cesare con la sua Legio XIII Gemina attraversò il Rubicone dando inizio alla guerra civile contro la fazione degli ottimati.
La legione rimase fedele a Cesare durante la guerra civile contro la fazione senatoriale guidata da Pompeo. La legio fu attiva durante tutto il conflitto, combattendo la battaglia di Durazzo e quella di Farsalo nel 48 a.C..
Dopo la decisiva vittoria di Farsalo, la legione fu sciolta e i legionari "pensionati" con la tradizionale assegnazione di terre. La legione fu però richiamata in armi nel 46 a.C. per prendere parte alla battaglia di Tapso e ala successiva Battaglia di Munda nel 45 a.C.. Dopo quest'ultima battaglia, Cesare sciolse nuovamente la legione premiandola con l'assegnazione di fattorie in Italia.
Durante l'impero
Augusto ricostruì nuovamente la legione nel 41 a.C. per affrontare la ribellione di Sesto Pompeo, figlio di Pompeo in Sicilia. La Legio XIII acquisì il cognomen Gemina (gemella appunto, che era l'appellativo comune per indicare le legioni costituite a partire da porzioni di altre legioni), dopo che fu rinforzata con i legionari veterani provenienti da altre legioni dopo la battaglia di Azio.[2] Augusto quindi inviò la legione a Burnum (l'odierna Tenin) nella provincia romana dell'Illiria (oggi in Croazia). Nel 16 a.C., la legione fu trasferita ad Emona, (Lubiana) in Pannonia dove dovette fronteggiare le ribellioni locali. Dopo la distrastrosa Battaglia della foresta di Teutoburgo nel 9, la legione fu inviata come rinforzo a Augusta Vindelica, l'odierna Augusta nella provincia di Germania Superior, per prevenire ulteriori attachi delle tribù germaniche.
L'imperatore Claudio la spostò nuovamente in Pannonia intorno al 45; la legione era di stanza a Poetovio, Ptuj nell'odierna Slovenia. Nell'Anno dei quattro imperatori, la XIII Gemina si schierò prima con Otone e poi con Vitellio, entrambi sconfitti, nelle due battaglie di Bedriaco. Nel 89, Domiziano trasferì la legione, che si trovava accampata a Vienna, in Dacia ad Alba Iulia, per presidiare la regione. La legione fu poi spostata quando la Dacia fu evaquata, e riposizionata nella Dacia Aureliana.
Vexillationes della XIII Gemina combatterono sotto l'imperatore Gallieno nell'Italia settentrionale. L'imperatore per celebrare la legione coniò un antoninianus con il Leone della legio (259-260).[3] Un'altra vexillatio era presente nell'armata Impero delle Gallie sotto il comando di Victorinus: anche questo imperatore coniò una moneta d'oro per celebrare la legio e il suo emblema.[4]
Nel V secolo, secondo la Notitia Dignitatum, la legio tertiadecima gemina si trovava in Babilonia d'Egitto, una fortezza strategica sul Nilo, lungo il confine tradizionale tra l'alto e il medio Egitto, sotto il comando del comes limitis Aegypti.[5]

RANKS

PREFECT OF THE LEGIO: Vectus Margulis
SCRIBA OF PREFECT: Tonina Rodenberger
PRIMUS PILUS: Brodbiz Bagration (Centurio of the first century)
PRINCEPS: Achille Back (Centurio of the second century)
HASTATUS: Zillatron Glume (Centurio of the third century)
OPTIO: Toe Fermi, Jaen DeCuir
IMMUNES: Ocean Lynagh

AMAZZONS

PILUS PRIOR AMAZZONS: Spaciva Ivanova
CENTURIO: Jo Soler, Tonina Rodenberger
OPTIO: Melanippe Karas
VEXILIFER: Angelia Rees
TESSERARIUS: Popea Heron

CAVALERY

TRIBUNUS: Valerianus Gaudio, Franck Gazov
CENTURIO: Brodbiz Bagration, Achille Back, Vido Sciarri, Douglas Niles

RULES OF THE LEGIO

As a member of the group you must respect your role as a representative of Legion XIII. When you appear in public wearing the group title of Legion XIII your conduct needs to be careful and polite, and your avatar appearance should be that of a human Roman legionary (your Avatar's skin may look however you like, the ancient legions recruited from all parts of the empire, and all recruits were treated equally... we only ask that while in legion "mode" you wear a human form to be visually in tune with the rest of the environment)

- Refrain from harassing citizens (verbally, sexually or violently) or any other disruptive behavior.

*Transgressors will be ejected from the Legion*

Please make sure that you have read the ROMA roleplay guidelines (found in the entrance area). Roleplay must never impinge upon the experience of a visitor to the ROMA sim who does not wish to roleplay.

- A degree of customization is permitted in dress and weapons, but historical and aesthetic restrictions apply - please avoid anachronistic material in your dress and appearance. This means stick to the guidelines of the time peroid... No firearms of any kind! Check to see that the weapon you are using is compatible with the Legion's combat system and guidelines. If you have any doubts about using a weapon then ask one of the officers.

- When on parade or participating in an event only the (free) low-prim standard issue weapons and armor may be worn.

Legion XIII is a non-profit Citizen run group, it is not officially affiliated with ROMA or its commercial business, and survives off the donations and good will of it's members. We ask you to consider making a small regular monthly donation too help pay the rent for our properties in Roma Subura (the communal fort and headquarters building), advancement of weapons and fighting systems, and the continual development of the legionaries Lorica (armor) and equipment. The fact is that if everyone in the group donated just Linden$ 100 per month (only 1 US dollar!) then we could safely afford to finance all our needs.

THE LEGIO XIII IN SECOND LIFE

The SL Legion was established as a tribute to the real Legion XIII. In this spirit roleplay is encouraged but Legionaries should conduct themselves with honor and respect for others. Our aim of re-creating the lives and dress of the ancient roman legion as accurately as possible requires that our members be willing to adapt their behavior and appearance when wearing the Legion group title, and during Roleplay in Roma.
The group is subdivided in 3 subgruops:
Infantry
Cavalery
Amazzons

Our army is subdivided in 3 centuries and each one has

RECRUITS: Must learn what behavior is expected from them as members of the Legio, and get familiar with the equipment and weapons. They must learn and train in combat techniques.

IMMUNES AND PRINCIPALES (5 of each): Have the duty to teach the recruits how to behave in the Legio, how to fit their armor, and how to fight using the combat system. They are directly in charge of the new recruits and must be obeyed by by them at all times. They must correct the behavior of members who are ignoring or disobeying the conduct rules. They must report all incidents (good or bad) to the upper ranks. They monitor the progress of the recruits and their attendance at training sessions.

THE IMMUNES SIGNIFER (1): Leads the parade with the standard of the Legio and is responsible for morale - he/she leads the war chants before battles. The Signifer must be present at every parade or event where the Legio is taking part.

DECURIONES (8): Directly in command of the lower ranks. They issue orders on behalf of the Ceturio and Optio, and assist or lead training sessions and parade events. They must correct the behavior of members who are ignoring or disobeying the conduct rules, and apply discipline decided by higher ranking officers. They must make weekly reports to an Optio, or to an officer of superior rank. They monitor the leadership of the immunes and Principales to be sure they don't abuse their powers against the recruits.
OPTIONES (1): Issue orders on behalf of the Centurio and are obeyed by all the lower ranks. They report directly to a Centurio, assist the Centurio in his work, and share command of the Century. They are partly responsible for organizing and leading group events and training sessions. They carry out administrative duties under the order of the Praefectus. They are responsible for the distribution of uniforms, equipment and weapons.

CENTURIONES (1): They have direct command of a Century of the Legio. They are responsible for organizing and leading group events, meetings and training sessions. They teach the troops how to fight as a coordinated group and lead parade drills (Latin commands must be learnt by all during training). They are responsible for the overseeing the conduct of lower ranks and promoting or demoting members. They must monitor the reports from lower ranks and decide punishments if necessary. They have to report their intentions or plans to the Primus Pilus or Praefecto. They issue orders on behalf of the Primus Pilus or Praefecto.

The Centurions are divided as follows:

Century I - Primus Pilus
Century II - Princeps
Century III - Hastatus

PRIMUS PILUM (1): Commanding all the others centurions of the Legion. Responsible for organizing and leading group events or meetings. Helps the Praefecto with running the Legio and administrative duties. Monitors the reports from lower ranks and decides punishments if necessary. Reports intentions or plans to the Praefecto. Issues orders on behalf of the Praefecto.

PRAEFECTUS (1): The camp Prefect. Overall Legionary commander - responsible for the administration of the Legio and auxiliary units. Coordinates production and distribution of uniforms, equipment, weapons and gadgets. Coordinates and organizes events and inter-sim activities. Responsible for the financial administration of the Legio.

We will not have a Legatus Legionis or a Tribunus Laticlavius.