lunedì 18 novembre 2013

Soldiers grave stones - a source for the study of Roman army (by Signifer Q.Claudius Secundus Petilianus)

this short conference is about roman gravestones as an epigraphic source on the roman army research

The sources are the starting point and the control for each reconstruction. We have three different types of sources:
1 written records
2 pictorial representations
3 original finds

Each of these sources provides many opportunities, but also problems of interpretation. The interaction and knowledge of the interpretation to give a fairly accurate picture of the object of contract, in this case the Roman army in the first century.

I would like to give a brief insight into the epigraphic sources that tell us about the Roman army this time information

What is epigraphy?
The Epigraphy Epigraphy or ("Inscription", from the Greek epigraphs επιγραφή "inscription") is an auxiliary historical science, which is particularly important for the Ancient History; she deals with inscriptions and inscriptions on various materials such as wood, stone , glass, marble, metal, leather, etc.

Since such inscriptions are more durable than ordinary writing documents on materials such as paper or parchment, epigraphic sources are often the only means to obtain information on contemporary defunct cultures. The main types are dedication, grave, construction and honorary inscriptions.

For the study of the roman army of the first century Roman soldiers grave stones are particularly valuable because there are so many finds of them

they provide not only information about the appearance of the soldiers and their equipment, but also provide statistical data of great accuracy, for which no other army before 17 century exists

Roman grave stones provide information on the origin, the retirement age and the period of service of the soldiers, so that you can make general statements about the Roman army, this time due to the large number of finds

I will not go into the inscriptions per se, as this is beyond the scope of a short talk at this point. I want you with several examples to show how you could do because Roman grave stones reconstructions of their equipment

1.this is the grave stone of the legionary Caius Valerius Crispus, about 75 AD, here's he served in the Legio VIII Augusta. At his death he was 40 years old and had served 21 years

2.Here we see one of the problems of interpretation of the early history research
Roman grave stones were, as well as columns and statues, painted, and depending on the amount of the cost of the grave stone and the financial position of inheriting, who allowed set the stone, the stones were not always fully prepared by the stonemason

The grave stone of Caius Crispus why you went out of a leather armor and put on his pants. in reality it is the pterygesstripes of the subarmalis and there is not a single hint of leather armor. they also make no sense

3.This stone is perhaps the most famous grave stone of a Roman soldier. it is the stone of  Caeliusl,who was killed 9 AD in the battle against Varus
You can recognize his military awards, the phalerae

4. here is a painted reconstruction of his gravestone

5. This is Publius Flavoleius Cordus, son of Publius, soldier of the Legio XIV GEMNINA, 43 years old, died after 23 years of service.
he wears Tunica, the typical military belts of the early 1 century, sword, dagger and sagum over his shoulder hangs an oval shield and he holds a pilum in his hand

6.The aquilifer Gnaeus Musius, 32 years old.

7.Petilius Quintus Secundus, son of Quintus Petilius, probably originated from Milan and was part of the constituency (tribe) Oufentina. Petilius was a soldier of the Legio XV Primigenia, which had its actual location in Vetera near Xanten. Likely to carry out construction activities, he was reassigned to the Roman camp in Bonn. The XV Primigenia was almost four years stationed at their main camp Mogontiacum (Mainz-Weisenau). [1] He died at the age of 25 years, after he had completed five years of service. His legacy had it made for Petilius a grave stone because of the will.
I have also chosen these names for my avatar ;)

8. stone of Marcus Favonius Facilis, son of Marcus, centurion of the Legio XX
about his under garment with pteryges he wears a short chain armor, a wide, ornate belt, the sword with the left side of the stock vine wood

9. here an example of another kind of grave stone. He does not show the person, but the equipment of his military rank

it is the stone of Titus Calidus Severus from Carnuntum (near Vienna).
the inscription says, that he first was in cavalry, then decurion in the cohors I Alpinorum and finally centurion in Legio XV Apollinaris. He was 58 years old and served 34 years

10. to the conclusion I would like to show a presentation of Trajan's Column in Rome here. It shows a Roman legionary who is wearing a lorica segmentata.
very strange is the circumstance that on no single grave stone such equipment appears
why this is so, we are still discussing about it

so i hope u enjoyed a little this conference, the next will be about the original finds and the reconstructions

many thanks for your attention

1 commento:

Keir ha detto...

Great use of primary source material (I teach history). Trying to find more showing the cingulum (so I know how to keep the damn thing from slipping down!)