venerdì 28 novembre 2008
The following recruits have sucessfully finished their recruitment period: Agente Larnia, Paol Franizzi (Cen I),peter Woody (Cen II), Airedale Magic and danilo Aristocrat (Cen III). The new male milites will get an invitation to their Century. CONGRATULATIOS! Scriba Nina on behalf of Praefectus Vectus Margulis and the Centuriones Brodbiz Bagration (Cen I), Achille Beck (Cen II), Zillatron Glume (Cen III) and Spaciva Ivanova (Amazons)
mercoledì 26 novembre 2008
They will make some photoshoots in our Roma and need for some of us.
The job will be this friday, 28.11.2008 at 2.30 slt (23.30 central european time).
sabato 15 novembre 2008
the winner of the tournament of yesterday is Jo Soler! She won the medal and she is allowed to wear it anytime she wants.
I have to congrats with all the people that came, and made the tournament possible.
The finalists were Toe Fermi, Motromahn Jumanya and Jo Soler.
After a last man standing beetween them, Jo Soler won.
Next time I'm going to plan the matches in order to have only two finalists :)
venerdì 14 novembre 2008
here there are the matches for the tournament that will be at 1 PM SL time tonight at the fort.
The subscriptions are closed, but some people is not sure to will be able to come, so some reserves are welcome.
The matches are totally casual, I drew the names from a box.
The tournament will follow the "playoff tree" scheme.
First matches are these:
1) Toe Fermi VS Alekso Minotaur
2) Calin Xeno VS Brodbiz Bagration
3) Peter Woody VS Danilo Aristocrat
4) Airedale VS Paol Finazzi
5) Ocean VS Jo Soler
6) Franck Gazov VS Revo Morales
giovedì 6 novembre 2008
Most of her youth she spent with her mother and her Nanny Silvia at the Villa Rustica, owned by her family just outside Roma; while her father was mostly occupied by his duties in the capital.
Her parents saw to it that she got a good education by private teachers as well as being taught by her mother to run a patrician household.
But her peaceful and protected life ended suddenly:
Nina was 12 years old, one day a gang of robbers raided the Villa Rustica in the evening. They killed her mother, the estate manager and the slaves, and burned the house.
By that time Silvia and the girl were just sacrificing in the little Diana temple in the garden.
Alarmed by the noise of the attack they managed to hide and finally to escape, unnoticed by the robbers.
With the help of a merchant, who picked them up on his cart the next day, they arrived at the Villa of her family in Roma two days later.
Nina suffered terribly by the death of her mother and the awful experience, but Silvia cared well for her as well as her father, during his short time.
At the age of 17 Nina's father gave her away with her consent as a wife to Zillatrius Tiberius Glumus.
Due to the duties of Zillatrius as a high officer they moved to Mediolanum for a few years.
During their time there the Gods blessed this marriage with the birth of a son, Publius Tiberius Glumus.
Today the Tiberius family is again living in Roma. The family owns a noble Villa in Roma and a Villa Rustica near the sea.
Besides her duties as the Mater familias of the Gens Tiberia, Nina serves the great Legion XIII as a Scriba and Amazon, and tries to support her husband with his IIIrd Centuria.
Both Zillatrius and Nina are very proud of thier son who is well known under the name Publio Sestio Baculo Tiberius Glumus.
Nina's father and also her true Nanny Silvia reached a great age and died a natural death.
martedì 4 novembre 2008
Lucius had the passion of great warriors, that's why he named his sons after some of them. Three sons, as Perseus, Achilles and Hector.
All of his three sons were teached in fighting and war arts since they were very jung. Hector and Perseus suddently started the military career, but not Achilles, he always said that a roman man should first use the head, then the sword.
Achilles started to learn greek architecture and philosophy and became soon one of the most favourite Architects of the Praefectus Urbis of Mediolanum, this is why of his cognomen Baculum (Measure Ruler).
A bad new then arrived from the German Limes, his brothers Perseus and Hector, after a battle, couldnt be found anymore.
The love for his brothers and the pression from his father made Achilles come to ROMA and join the Legion, the only way to understand and discover what happened to them.
Achilles Claudius Bacorius serves now in the XIII Legio and in the Praetorian Imperial Guard.
domenica 2 novembre 2008
In 260 b.C. Rome fought its first naval battle: nearby Mylae (present-day Milazzo), the Carthaginian fleet, in spite of hundreds of years of experience, was defeated by the Roman navy, thanks to a new instrument that would make Rome the master of the Mediterranean during the following centuries: the corvus.
The victory at Cape Mylae let consul Gaius Duilius celebrate the first naval triumph in the history of Rome. The consul himself was honoured in the forum with a columna rostrata, decorated with the rostrums of captured hostile ships.
During the following centuries, Rome fought many other naval battles, with alternating success; some of them were historically fundamental, like the Battel of Actium (considered the last naval battle of Antiquity), others not at all.
For many centuries the Mediterranean Sea has been considered, rightfully, a “Roman lake”, rechristened “mare nostrum”.
The Roman navy was also employed during the Macedonian wars, assisted by the Rhodian and Pergamene fleets.
With the coming of the Vandals, for the first time the Roman navy, largely abandoned during the V century, found an opponent that proved itself to be even better. In 458, emperor Majorian re-organized and re-armed two fleets, probably the classis Misenensis and the classis Ravennatis, but his big navy was destroyed during the African invasion, by the hand of Spanish traitors.
In 469 there had been the last and hugest naval operation of Antiquity: under the command of general Basiliscus, the combined fleets of Western and Easterne Empire attacked the Vandals: the Romans had the victory close, when the Vandals destroyed the adverse fleet with a night sortie. The Romans were born as shepherds and farmers, but soon, after the enlargement of their domination during the Republican age, Rome collided with the greatest commercial and naval potency known in the Mediterranean
Five years later, a Roman patrol discovered the young Petrus in the woods where he was hunting together with some natives who have taken the young boy from the body of his dead father, and raised and educated him as a son of their own tribe. The strong boy was indeed healthy and a very skilled hunter. Surprisingly, he still remebered some latin words, and so he was easily recognized and given the cognomen Silvanus ("from the woods") . He returned to Rome and joined Legio XIII with the ambition to follow the footprints his forefathers.
Robina Cornelia, the aging Mater Familia was all to happy to welcome Petrus Cornelius Silvanus back in the arms of the gens Cornelia. Although Petrus and Publius are serving Roma in different military units, the cousins befriended very fast as they are sharing some common interests.
He started the militar carear in the Legio XIII under Caius Julius Caesar and he went to fight in Gallia.
He had a good leadership on the recruites that were with him and thanks of some good ideas and thanks of his behaviour he became first Immunes than Principales. He was also able to provide his Legio with a “balista”. This was one of the reason for his promotion to Optio and than Centurio of the Century II.
During the war in Gallia he had occasion to show his bravery and his loyality to the Legio;here it is an exemple taken from the De Bello Gallico by Caesar:
“The camp had no more protection from the Barbarians that,noticed it, attacked. All roman soldiers was worried to loose the camp. Publio Sestio Baculo, that was left in the camp, because injured, went out from his tend and saw the enemys. He took the weapons and defended the camp from the Barbarians. In this way the other roman soldiers were able to come back and to pull back the enemys. When they arrived back Publio Sestio had to esc from the battle because of his wounds.”
For his behaviour and his loyality, under the Emperor Julianus Augustus, he was promoted Princeps of the whole Legio XIII under the Praefectus Vectus Margulis. After the death of Caesar the Glumus family recived a plot of land near Rome as a prize for his loyality to the Emperor and to the people of the Empire.
Now Publio Sestio continue to serve the Emperor and the Legio, as he always did, with his family and his friends.
sabato 1 novembre 2008
A naval ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity. The weapon consisted of an underwater prolongation of the bow of the ship to form an armoured beak, usually between six and twelve feet in length.
The ram was a naval weapon in the Greek/Roman antiquity and was used in such naval battles as Salamis and Actium. For the last stage of the attack the ship would be propelled by oarsmen rather than sails.
A trireme bronze cast ram has been found off Athlit (Israel) without any other wreckage around it which gives credit to the idea often expressed by some scholars that the ancient shipbuilders and carpenters built the ship's keel with some sort of carpenter's trick enabling the ram to be sheared off the keel without endangering the ramming (attacking) ship, which could otherwise have sprung a leak or be driven to the bottom by the sinking opponent. Rams were always made of bronze, and weighed anywhere from 8 to 20 tons.
A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines. The name is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek καταπέλτης - katapeltes, from κατά - kata (downwards, into, against) and πάλλω - pallo (to poise or sway a missile before it is thrown). The catapult appears to have been invented in 399 BC in the city of Syracuse during the reign of the tyrant Dionysius I. Originally, "catapult" referred to a dart-thrower, while "ballista" referred to a stone-thrower, but the two terms swapped meaning sometime in the fourth century AD
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra, from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw"), plural ballistae, was a weapon developed from earlier Greek weapons. It relied upon different mechanics using instead of a prod two levers with torsion springs, consisting of several loops of twisted skeins. Early versions ejected heavy darts or spherical stone projectiles of various sizes for siege warfare. It developed into a smaller sniper weapon, the Scorpio, and possibly the polybolos.
The harpago, a catapult-fired grappling hook, which was used to clamp onto an enemy ship, reel it in and board it, in a much more efficient way than with the old corvus, and the use of collapsible fighting towers placed one apiece bow and stern, which were used to provide the boarders with supporting fire
Essentially, the Roman ships were improved versions of the Greek ones: biremes and triremes (but also bigger ones), with the addition of Roman inventions, such as the corvus and the rostrum.
Known since V century b.C., the bireme endured few changes with the passing of time. It was (depending on the epochs) about 24 metres long, with a maximum beam length of around 3 metres, and had a double line of oarsmen, sat on the same bench two by two, on each side. Its sail was square-shaped, and let the ship reach a good speed, thanks to little weight and small dimensions. Fairly diffused in the ancient age, yet it was soon superseded by the trireme, more useful and complete.
The triremes were the real spine of the Roman navy. Fast and agile, very easy to control, the trireme was the most diffused battleship in the Mediterranean until the Middle Ages.
More than 40 metres long, its width was about 6 metres: these dimensions provided the room necessary to place infantry weapons, simply fixed on the deck, and a century of navy infantrymen (80 soldiers). Under the deck rowed the oarsmen (up to 170) placed on three overlying levels. Their conditions were extremely precarious, even if far better than the ones of the slaves assigned to the cleansing of the cloacas or to the furnaces under the baths.
Quadriremes and quinqueremes
The quadrireme and quinquereme were similar in dimensions (48 metres long, 8 metres large, and a draught of one meter for the former, little more for the latter) were the ironclads of the epoch. Each of them had two corvii (one to the stem and one to the stern), several siege-arms on the deck (ballistae and little onagers) and one or two wooden towers to let the archers shoot from a high (and therefore favourable) position.
The quadrireme had 240 oarsmen, 15 sailors and 120 navy infantrymen in armour.
The quinquereme kept 300 oarsmen, 50 sailors and 120 infantrymen below deck.
There were ships assigned to the transport of the general staff of the army, i.e. the admiral and high-ranked officials; however they took part in the battles very rarely. Their function was, above all, that of intimidating the enemy. Despite this “demonstrative” role, the hexareme was anyhow completely equipped, and very massive in its dimensions.
It has been conjectured the existence of the decireme, but the sources haven’t been verified yet by archaeological discoveries.
The name liburna comes from the Liburnians (the pirates of Dalmatia). It was a middle-sized ship, but had the advantage of being slim, fast and very handy; suitable for pursuits, for logistic support and quick transport of troops. In fact, the liburna was often employed in fluvial flotillas on the limes of the Rhine and the Danube, and for the hunting of the pirates in the Adriatic sea.
Jo, Tonina and I decided to change the Legionaire of the week in Legionaire of the month. Because of it is not always easy to decide who was the better in only one week and only one training or event. However the legionaire of the month will win a medal as prize.
So keep on acting in this way :)
Each ship was commanded by a trierarchus , while squadrons were put under a nauarchus , who often appears to have risen from the ranks of the trierarchi. The post of nauarchus princeps appeared later in the Imperial period, and functioned either as a commander of several squadrons. Only in the 3rd century were these officers equated to the legionary centurions in status and pay, and could henceforth be transferred to a similar position in the legions.
During the Republic, command of a fleet was given to a serving magistrate or promagistrate , usually of consular or praetorian rank. However, since these men were political appointees, the actual handling of the fleets and of separate squadrons was entrusted to their more experienced legates and subordinates. It was therefore during the Punic Wars that the separate position of praefectus classis ("fleet prefect") first appeared. Initially subordinate to the magistrate in command, after the fleet's reorganization by Augustus, the praefectus classis became procuratorial positions in charge the permanent fleets.
Ogni nave era comandato da un trierarchus, mentre squadroni sono stati messi sotto una nauarchus, che spesso sembra essere promosso dai ranghi del trierarchi. La carica di nauarchus princeps apparve in seguito, durante il periodo imperiale, e ha funzionato come un comandante di diversi squadroni. Solo nel 3 ° secolo questi ranghi sono stati equiparati ai centurioni della Legione; avrebbero così potuto essere trasferiti nelle legione nello stesso ruolo.
Durante la Repubblica, il comando di una flotta era dato a un console o a un pretore.
Durante le Guerre Puniche il grado di Praefectus Classis ( "prefetto della flotta") apparve per la prima volta. Inizialmente subordinato al magistrato di comando, dopo la riorganizzazione della flotta operata da Augusto, il prefetto della flotta divenne il comandante in capo permanente della flotta. Tuttavia, i prefetti sono rimasti in gran parte nomine politiche, e nonostante la loro esperienza militare, di solito al comando di unità ausiliarie la loro conoscenza delle questioni della flotta era minimo, costringendoli a fare affidamento su i loro subalterni che erano soldati e militari di professione.
La Marina romana aveva due basi principali e diverse basi provinciali; ciascuna base ospitava una flotta, marittima o fluviale.
Le due flotte principali avevano la funzione di controllare l'intero Mediterraneo, ed erano:
Le flotte provinciali erano:
- la Classis Britannica, che controllava il canale della Manica e le acque intorno alla Britannia;
- la Classis Germanica, che era una flotta fluviale e controllava il Reno;
- la Classis Pannonica, che era una flotta fluviale e controllava il Danubio;
- la Classis Moesica, che controllava il mar Nero occidentale e parte del corso del Danubio;
- la Classis Pontica, che controllava il mar Nero meridionale;
- la Classis Syriaca, che controllava le coste della Siria, della Palestina e della Turchia meridionale;
- la Classis Alexandrina, che controllava le coste dell'Egitto;
- la Classis Mauretanica, che controllava le coste dell'Africa occidentale;
- la Classis Libyca, che controllava i litorali libici.
Bireme: Conosciuta fin dal V secolo a.C., la bireme subì nel corso del tempo poche modifiche. Era (a seconda delle epoche) lunga circa 23/24 metri e larga poco più di 3, con due file di rematori seduti sulla stessa panca. Aveva una vela di forma quadrata e riusciva a raggiungere discrete velocità grazie al peso e alle dimensioni contenute. Discretamente diffusa nell'antichità, fu però presto soppiantata dalla più funzionale e completa trireme.
Trireme: Le triremi costituivano la vera "spina dorsale" della marina romana. Veloce e agile, molto manovrabile, la trireme fu l'imbarcazione da guerra più diffusa nel Mediterraneo fino al Medioevo. Lunga fino a oltre 40 metri era larga poco più di 6, dimensioni che garantivano anche lo spazio per posizionarvi armi da campo riadattate o semplicemente fissate sul ponte del nave, e una centuria (80 uomini) di fanti di marina. Sotto al tavolato del ponte, in condizioni molto precarie (ma mai quanto gli schiavi adibiti alla pulizia delle cloache o a quelli che lavoravano alle fornaci sotto le terme), remavano i vogatori (fino a 170) disposti su tre livelli sovrapposti.
Quadrireme e quinquireme:
La quadrireme e la quinquireme erano due navi simili per dimensioni (48 metri di lunghezza per 8 di larghezza ed un pescaggio di 1 metro circa per la prima, poco di più per la seconda), erano le corazzate dell'epoca. Montavano due corvi (uno a prua l'altro a poppa), diverse armi da assedio sul ponte (baliste e piccoli onagri) e una o due vere e proprie torri in legno sul ponte, per permettere agli arceri di tirare da posizione rialzata (e quindi vantaggiosa).
La quadrireme aveva 240 vogatori, 15 marinai e 120 fanti di marina in armatura. La quinquireme portava sottocoperta 300 vogatori, con 50 marinai e 120 fanti.
Esareme: Vi erano anche navi che trasportavano lo Stato Maggiore dell'esercito, quindi ammiraglio e alti ufficiali, che non prendevano però parte agli scontri (se non in rari casi); avevano per lo più la funzione di deterrente per impressionare il nemico. Nonostante la funzione probabilmente "dimostrativa" era comunque armata di tutto punto ed imponente per dimensioni.
Si ipotizza anche l'esistenza di decireme ma le fonti sono ancora da verificare e confutare con eventuali riscontri archeologici.
Liburna: La liburna prende il nome dal popolo dei Liburni (pirati della Dalmazia). Era una nave di medie dimensioni ma aveva il vantaggio di essere stretta, veloce e molto manovrabile; adatta agli inseguimenti, al supporto logistico e al rapido trasporto di truppe. Fu infatti impiegata molto nelle flottiglie fluviali sul limes del Reno, del Danubio e nella caccia ai pirati dell'Adriatico.
I romani nacquero come insieme di tribù di pastori e agricoltori, ma ben presto, con l'ingrandirsi dei territori dominati in epoca repubblicana, Roma si trovò in competizione con la più grande potenza commerciale e navale che il mediterraneo aveva conosciuto fino ad allora: Cartagine.
Nel 260 a.C. Roma affrontò la sua prima vera battaglia navale: nei pressi di Milae (l'attuale Milazzo) la flotta cartaginese, nonostante fosse forte della sua plurisecolare esperienza venne battuta da quella romana appena istituita grazie all'ausilio di uno strumento che renderà Roma padrona del mediterraneo nei secoli seguenti: il corvo.
La vittoria nella Battaglia di capo Milazzo permise al console Gaio Duilio di celebrare il primo trionfo navale della storia di Roma. Lo stesso console fu onorato nel foro con una columna rostrata, adorna cioè dei rostri delle navi nemiche catturate.
Nei secoli che seguirono, Roma combatté molte altre battaglie in mare con alterne fortune, alcune non determinanti altre storicamente fondamentali, come quella della Battaglia di Azio (considerata l'ultima battaglia navale dell'antichità). Per molti secoli il Mediterraneo fu considerato a buon diritto "lago romano" ribattezzato mare nostrum. Tra gli impieghi della flotta romana vi fu quello durante le guerre macedoniche, in cui la flotta romana fu affiancata da quella del Regno di Pergamo e da quella di Rodi.
Con l'avvento dei Vandali per la prima volta la marina militare romana, largamente abbandonata nel V secolo, trovò un avversario che si dimostrò addirittura superiore. Nel 458 l'imperatore Maggioriano riorganizzò e riarmò due flotte, probabilmente la classis Misenensis e quella Ravennatis, ma la sua notevole flotta d'invasione dell'Africa fu distrutta per mano di traditori in Spagna. Nel 468 vi fu l'ultima e più grande operazione navale dell'antichità: sotto il comando del generale Basilisco, le flotte combinate d'Oriente e d'Occidente attaccarono i Vandali: i Romani avevano la situazione in pugno, quando i Vandali distrussero con un attacco notturno la flotta nemica.