lunedì 15 dicembre 2008

SATURNALIA

SATURNALIA, LEGIONXIII ACTIVITIES.

THE XIII LEGION WILL SHOW A NORMAL DAY IN A MILITARY CAMP OF ANCIENT ROMA, DURING AN USUAL DAY OF NO FIGHT.

PLACE: RECREATION OF A CASTRUM (CAMP) IN A PLATFORM OVER ROMA (PROBABLY)

WHEN: SATURDAY 20TH DECEMBRE, 12 NOON SLT

HERE COMES A LIST OF ACTIVITIES WE WOULD LIKE TO PREPARE FOR VISITORS.

HIGH OFFICERS ARE WORKING ON PREPARING THIS ACTIVITIES, WE ASK TO INTRESTED SOLDIERS, TO SIGN UP AT THE 'CASTRUM REENACTMENT EVENT BOARD' THAT YOU CAN FIND AT OUR FORT IN OSTIA.
INTRESTED SOLDIERS WILL RECIVE A ROLE IN THIS REENACTMENT DAY, INFORMATIONS ABOUT WHAT TO DO AND HOW TO ACT.

ACTIVITIES TO BE SHOWEN UP:

1) MILITES GAMES
- Dice game
- Arm wrestling


2) CARING AND FEEDING ANIMALS
- Animals:
Horses
Cows
Sheeps
Porks
Chickens
- Animations needed


3) CARING ABOUT ARMORY (ARMOR CLEANING SHARPING SWORDS AND ARROWS MAKERS)
- Blacksmith
- Sharping animation


4) COOKING
- Preparing soups
- Making bread


5) HIGH OFFICERS PREPARING BATTLE STRATEGIES
- High officers needed


6) MAIL SERVICE (PONY EXPRESS)
- Equites that goes and comes with messages


7) ROAD BUILDING
- Showing up a piece of road being builded


8) AQUEDUCT BUILDING
- Showing up a piece of aqueduct being builded


IF YOU ARE INTRESTED IN PLAYING A ROLE IN THIS REENACTMENT DAY AND LIVE LIKE A REAL ANCIENT LEGIONARY, SIGN UP, CLICKING THE POSTER AT OUR FORT, IN OSTIA.

IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTION, IM ACHILLE BACK.

PROMOTIONS

Salvete Amazons and Legionnaries!

The following recruits have sucessfully finished their recruitment period:
alana555 Anatra, Motromahn Jumanya (Cen I),
montgomery Shelman (Cen II) and Mateja Zanzibar (Cen III). The new male milites will get an invitation to their Century.

CONGRATULATIONS!


Scriba Nina on behalf of Praefectus Vectus Margulis and the Centuriones Brodbiz Bagration (Cen I), Achille Beck (Cen II), Zillatron Glume (Cen III) and Spaciva Ivanova (Amazons)

sabato 6 dicembre 2008

WINNER OF THE TOURNAMENT

Hello all,
I am very happy that the tournament was good and you all had fun! This is the best reward for me. Thanks to all that have taken part to this event.
I want to congrats with Melanippe who won it! Also congratulation to Alekso who ranked second and Motromahn who ranked third.
Thanks to Achille, Jo, Tonina and Spaciva who organized this tournament with me.
Take care you all,
Vale,
Brodbiz

martedì 2 dicembre 2008

TOURNAMENT FRIDAY 5th DECEMBER

SALVETE LEGIONARIES AND AUXILIARY UNITS.

The Legion XIII Gemina is proud to invite you to the Legion Indoor Tournament, Friday the 5th DECEMBER 2008
Read below to know more.


RULES / HOW TO JOIN:

Only members of LegionXIII group (and auxiliaries) can join this event.
To be able to play in the tournament, members have to sign in at the tournament in the sign up board (that i will personally build at the fort in ostia) or IM Achille Back.
The matches are deathmatches.
The same rules of the official trainig session are enabled (ready before fighting, official weapons, etc.)


STRUCTURE:

The tournament will be structured by emimination 'best-of-the-three' matches. Every turn, 2 soldiers will fight 1vs1 for three matches, the one who wins at least 2 matches, passes the turn.
Structured like below:

2 (winner)
____I___
I I
2 3
__I__ __I__
I I I I
1 2 3 4


PRIZES:

The first place wins 1000L$
The second place wins 500L$
The third place wins a Toga/Tunica from the Roman Living /Habitemus shop (sponsored by Achille Back and Tonina Rodenberger)


DO YOU FEEL GOOD ENOUGH TO SHOW YOUR SKILLS AND WIN THE FIRST PLACE? T HEN JOIN THIS EVENT, SOLDIER !

Montgomery Shelman's bio

Caius Sabinus

Descendant from an ancient and noble, thought not roman family, origined from the marriage between a princess of the apulii ?
(japigi) and a prence of sabinians, celebrated to set an alliance between these two italian populations.The legend says that ?
when the Sabine rape happened, at the very beginning of the roman history, one of them were already pregnant and after few ?
months she gave birth to a not roman child, so called by all "sabinus" to distinguish from the others born after the rape.
It is told that Caius still possess the legendary seal of the ancient alleance. His family has been living in Roma since the ?
foundation, though with alternant fortune. He joined the XIII legio although being very young, to obtain on the battlefield ?
the glory he think to deserve by heritage.

Discendente da un'antica e nobile famiglia, seppur non romana, originata dal matrimonio tra una principessa degli apuli (japigi) e un principe dei sabini, celebrato per stabilire un'alleanza tra queste due popolazioni italiche. Quando avvenne il ratto delle sabine, agli albori della storia di Roma, una di loro era già incinta e pochi mesi dopo dette alla luce un figlio, non romano, per questo chiamato "sabino" per distinguerlo dagli altri nati dopo il ratto. Si racconta che Caio possegga ancora il leggendario sigillo dell'antica alleanza. La sua famiglia ha continuato a vivere a Roma fin dalla fondazione, sebbene con alterne fortune. Si è arruolato nella XIII legione sebbene molto giovane, per ottenere sul campo la gloria che ritiene di meritare per discendenza.

Alekso Minotaur's bio

Alexius Sejanus, brother of Lucius Aelius Sejanus, since he was a little child, was sent to military schools to get him ready to represent his family in the glorious army of the Empire. When he was only 15 years old he has been sent to Greece for the campain going on there. This took almost two years, cause the training plan of his powerful father was to let him growing among the soldiers in several garrisons along the way to Greece, to temper his bones. Once he got to Greece, he had several battles, and regardless to his lineage, he ever was in the frontlines as a Milites. Fortunately he came out of each battle just slightly injured, due to his long training, watching the Death in the face sometimes. Finally, his service period came to the end for Emperor's order, after 12 years of training and battles along the way and in the final destination battlefield, Greece. Once the longed order to come back to Roma has been received, he was embarked on the first ship sailing to Ostia, but...already at his first trip day, a terrible storm involved the ship and sank it down, leaving Alexius in the middle of the sea, grappled to a barrel, until he approached to the Insula Minotaurii, an island blamed to be the Minotaurus descendant's shelter. In reality, the population was kind and polite, just very furry and shaggy headed, reason for the sailor's fear and cause of that legend. Unfortunately, that population had only primitive tools for building, that made Alexius working for further 3 years in order to be able to build a solid boat, capable to reach the Cretae's coasts.

Finally he reached Cretae's coast, after one whole day rowing against the sea's and wind's evilness, and once landed he just could reach the closest roman garrison, falling down fainted. When he woke up, he could talk to the local Praet Praefectus, being aknowledged about the rumors of his survival in the cursed island. The local population was scared and astonished by the fact that Alexius came back from that island still alive, assigning him the nickname Minotaurii, "of the Minotaurus". This time, the local Praet Praefectus organized a group of ships to reach Ostia, cause there were many legionaires who had to go back home, and cause if any problem would be occurred along the way, he wouldn't be alone. Taking advantage of both issues, the Praet Praefectus could organize a fleet quite quickly, and as quickly Alexius could get on board of the ship which would have brought him back to his family.

Once at home, Alexius didn't know what to do of his life...his father died in the meantime, and all his family believed he died too on the battlefield. The politician's life just didn't fit for him, and all the family's business were already occupied by his relatives...thus he decided to go back to the Legion, as Milites as his father's order said, waiting for the right moment to be promoted while serving the Almighty Emperor in the extreemely difficult mission of bringing the civilization upto the known world's borders.

lunedì 1 dicembre 2008

LEGIONAIRE OF THE MONTH

Hello dear members, today it is the first of December and so it is time to announce the legionaire of the month. This month the winner is Ocean Lynagh.
He did a very nice job while Zillatron Glume was busy in RL. He came to training, and events also, as he always did.
Congratulations Ocean!

venerdì 28 novembre 2008

Salve Amazons and Legionnaries!
The following recruits have sucessfully finished their recruitment period: Agente Larnia, Paol Franizzi (Cen I),peter Woody (Cen II), Airedale Magic and danilo Aristocrat (Cen III). The new male milites will get an invitation to their Century. CONGRATULATIOS! Scriba Nina on behalf of Praefectus Vectus Margulis and the Centuriones Brodbiz Bagration (Cen I), Achille Beck (Cen II), Zillatron Glume (Cen III) and Spaciva Ivanova (Amazons)
Tonina Rodenberger

mercoledì 26 novembre 2008

PHOTOSHOTS

We have an external request, a SL journal is making a report on ancient Rome and asked our legion the disponibility of some Equites and Legionaries.
They will make some photoshoots in our Roma and need for some of us.
The job will be this friday, 28.11.2008 at 2.30 slt (23.30 central european time).

sabato 15 novembre 2008

WINNER OF THE TOURNAMENT

Hello all,
the winner of the tournament of yesterday is Jo Soler! She won the medal and she is allowed to wear it anytime she wants.
I have to congrats with all the people that came, and made the tournament possible.
The finalists were Toe Fermi, Motromahn Jumanya and Jo Soler.
After a last man standing beetween them, Jo Soler won.
Next time I'm going to plan the matches in order to have only two finalists :)

venerdì 14 novembre 2008

MATCHES OF THE TOURNAMENT OF TONIGHT

Hello all,
here there are the matches for the tournament that will be at 1 PM SL time tonight at the fort.
The subscriptions are closed, but some people is not sure to will be able to come, so some reserves are welcome.
The matches are totally casual, I drew the names from a box.
The tournament will follow the "playoff tree" scheme.
First matches are these:

1) Toe Fermi VS Alekso Minotaur
2) Calin Xeno VS Brodbiz Bagration
3) Peter Woody VS Danilo Aristocrat
4) Airedale VS Paol Finazzi
5) Ocean VS Jo Soler
6) Franck Gazov VS Revo Morales

giovedì 6 novembre 2008

TONINA RODENBERGER BIO

Nina Tiberia Glumus was born in Roma as the daughter of the Senator Gaius Antonius and his wife Livia.
Most of her youth she spent with her mother and her Nanny Silvia at the Villa Rustica, owned by her family just outside Roma; while her father was mostly occupied by his duties in the capital.
Her parents saw to it that she got a good education by private teachers as well as being taught by her mother to run a patrician household.
But her peaceful and protected life ended suddenly:
Nina was 12 years old, one day a gang of robbers raided the Villa Rustica in the evening. They killed her mother, the estate manager and the slaves, and burned the house.
By that time Silvia and the girl were just sacrificing in the little Diana temple in the garden.
Alarmed by the noise of the attack they managed to hide and finally to escape, unnoticed by the robbers.
With the help of a merchant, who picked them up on his cart the next day, they arrived at the Villa of her family in Roma two days later.
Nina suffered terribly by the death of her mother and the awful experience, but Silvia cared well for her as well as her father, during his short time.
At the age of 17 Nina's father gave her away with her consent as a wife to Zillatrius Tiberius Glumus.
Due to the duties of Zillatrius as a high officer they moved to Mediolanum for a few years.
During their time there the Gods blessed this marriage with the birth of a son, Publius Tiberius Glumus.
Today the Tiberius family is again living in Roma. The family owns a noble Villa in Roma and a Villa Rustica near the sea.
Besides her duties as the Mater familias of the Gens Tiberia, Nina serves the great Legion XIII as a Scriba and Amazon, and tries to support her husband with his IIIrd Centuria.
Both Zillatrius and Nina are very proud of thier son who is well known under the name Publio Sestio Baculo Tiberius Glumus.
Nina's father and also her true Nanny Silvia reached a great age and died a natural death.

martedì 4 novembre 2008

ACHILLE BACK BIOS

Achilles, son of Lucius Claudius, is a roman citizen from the city of Mediolanum.

Lucius had the passion of great warriors, that's why he named his sons after some of them. Three sons, as Perseus, Achilles and Hector.
All of his three sons were teached in fighting and war arts since they were very jung. Hector and Perseus suddently started the military career, but not Achilles, he always said that a roman man should first use the head, then the sword.
Achilles started to learn greek architecture and philosophy and became soon one of the most favourite Architects of the Praefectus Urbis of Mediolanum, this is why of his cognomen Baculum (Measure Ruler).

A bad new then arrived from the German Limes, his brothers Perseus and Hector, after a battle, couldnt be found anymore.
The love for his brothers and the pression from his father made Achilles come to ROMA and join the Legion, the only way to understand and discover what happened to them.

Achilles Claudius Bacorius serves now in the XIII Legio and in the Praetorian Imperial Guard.

domenica 2 novembre 2008

HISTORY OF THE NAVY

The Romans were born as shepherds and farmers, but soon, after the enlargement of their domination during the Republican age, Rome collided with the greatest commercial and naval potency known in the Mediterranean sea till then: Carthage.
In 260 b.C. Rome fought its first naval battle: nearby Mylae (present-day Milazzo), the Carthaginian fleet, in spite of hundreds of years of experience, was defeated by the Roman navy, thanks to a new instrument that would make Rome the master of the Mediterranean during the following centuries: the corvus.
The victory at Cape Mylae let consul Gaius Duilius celebrate the first naval triumph in the history of Rome. The consul himself was honoured in the forum with a columna rostrata, decorated with the rostrums of captured hostile ships.
During the following centuries, Rome fought many other naval battles, with alternating success; some of them were historically fundamental, like the Battel of Actium (considered the last naval battle of Antiquity), others not at all.
For many centuries the Mediterranean Sea has been considered, rightfully, a “Roman lake”, rechristened “mare nostrum”.
The Roman navy was also employed during the Macedonian wars, assisted by the Rhodian and Pergamene fleets.
With the coming of the Vandals, for the first time the Roman navy, largely abandoned during the V century, found an opponent that proved itself to be even better. In 458, emperor Majorian re-organized and re-armed two fleets, probably the classis Misenensis and the classis Ravennatis, but his big navy was destroyed during the African invasion, by the hand of Spanish traitors.
In 469 there had been the last and hugest naval operation of Antiquity: under the command of general Basiliscus, the combined fleets of Western and Easterne Empire attacked the Vandals: the Romans had the victory close, when the Vandals destroyed the adverse fleet with a night sortie. The Romans were born as shepherds and farmers, but soon, after the enlargement of their domination during the Republican age, Rome collided with the greatest commercial and naval potency known in the Mediterranean

PETER CORNELIUS SILVANUS BIO

Petrus Cornelius Silvanus is the son of Lucius Cornelius, a Roman decurion who followed his older brother Octavius to the northern border of the province of Britannica. After Octavius was killed by rebelling tribes, Lucius was missing in action and nobody knew what happened to Petrus. After searching for them 4 weeks in vain, the family returned to Roma without them, but they never gave up the hope to meet Lucius and Petrus again one day.

Five years later, a Roman patrol discovered the young Petrus in the woods where he was hunting together with some natives who have taken the young boy from the body of his dead father, and raised and educated him as a son of their own tribe. The strong boy was indeed healthy and a very skilled hunter. Surprisingly, he still remebered some latin words, and so he was easily recognized and given the cognomen Silvanus ("from the woods") . He returned to Rome and joined Legio XIII with the ambition to follow the footprints his forefathers.

Robina Cornelia, the aging Mater Familia was all to happy to welcome Petrus Cornelius Silvanus back in the arms of the gens Cornelia. Although Petrus and Publius are serving Roma in different military units, the cousins befriended very fast as they are sharing some common interests.

Publio Sestio Baculo Roma role game bio

Publio Sestio Baculo Tiberius Glumus was born in Mediolanum while his family had a house there.
He started the militar carear in the Legio XIII under Caius Julius Caesar and he went to fight in Gallia.
He had a good leadership on the recruites that were with him and thanks of some good ideas and thanks of his behaviour he became first Immunes than Principales. He was also able to provide his Legio with a “balista”. This was one of the reason for his promotion to Optio and than Centurio of the Century II.
During the war in Gallia he had occasion to show his bravery and his loyality to the Legio;here it is an exemple taken from the De Bello Gallico by Caesar:
“The camp had no more protection from the Barbarians that,noticed it, attacked. All roman soldiers was worried to loose the camp. Publio Sestio Baculo, that was left in the camp, because injured, went out from his tend and saw the enemys. He took the weapons and defended the camp from the Barbarians. In this way the other roman soldiers were able to come back and to pull back the enemys. When they arrived back Publio Sestio had to esc from the battle because of his wounds.”
For his behaviour and his loyality, under the Emperor Julianus Augustus, he was promoted Princeps of the whole Legio XIII under the Praefectus Vectus Margulis. After the death of Caesar the Glumus family recived a plot of land near Rome as a prize for his loyality to the Emperor and to the people of the Empire.
Now Publio Sestio continue to serve the Emperor and the Legio, as he always did, with his family and his friends.

sabato 1 novembre 2008

WEAPONS OF THE NAVY

RAM

A naval ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity. The weapon consisted of an underwater prolongation of the bow of the ship to form an armoured beak, usually between six and twelve feet in length.

The ram was a naval weapon in the Greek/Roman antiquity and was used in such naval battles as Salamis and Actium. For the last stage of the attack the ship would be propelled by oarsmen rather than sails.

A trireme bronze cast ram has been found off Athlit (Israel) without any other wreckage around it which gives credit to the idea often expressed by some scholars that the ancient shipbuilders and carpenters built the ship's keel with some sort of carpenter's trick enabling the ram to be sheared off the keel without endangering the ramming (attacking) ship, which could otherwise have sprung a leak or be driven to the bottom by the sinking opponent. Rams were always made of bronze, and weighed anywhere from 8 to 20 tons.

CATAPULT

A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines. The name is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek καταπέλτης - katapeltes, from κατά - kata (downwards, into, against) and πάλλω - pallo (to poise or sway a missile before it is thrown).[1] The catapult appears to have been invented in 399 BC in the city of Syracuse during the reign of the tyrant Dionysius I[2]. Originally, "catapult" referred to a dart-thrower, while "ballista" referred to a stone-thrower, but the two terms swapped meaning sometime in the fourth century AD

BALISTA

The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra, from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw"), plural ballistae, was a weapon developed from earlier Greek weapons. It relied upon different mechanics using instead of a prod two levers with torsion springs, consisting of several loops of twisted skeins. Early versions ejected heavy darts or spherical stone projectiles of various sizes for siege warfare. It developed into a smaller sniper weapon, the Scorpio,[1] and possibly the polybolos.

HARPAGO

The harpago, a catapult-fired grappling hook, which was used to clamp onto an enemy ship, reel it in and board it, in a much more efficient way than with the old corvus, and the use of collapsible fighting towers placed one apiece bow and stern, which were used to provide the boarders with supporting fire

ROMAN SHIPS

The ships belonging to the Roman Navy are divided in two categories: naves longae and naves ceterae. The former were used for war in itself; the latter for transport of people or objects.
Essentially, the Roman ships were improved versions of the Greek ones: biremes and triremes (but also bigger ones), with the addition of Roman inventions, such as the corvus and the rostrum.

Biremes
Known since V century b.C., the bireme endured few changes with the passing of time. It was (depending on the epochs) about 24 metres long, with a maximum beam length of around 3 metres, and had a double line of oarsmen, sat on the same bench two by two, on each side. Its sail was square-shaped, and let the ship reach a good speed, thanks to little weight and small dimensions. Fairly diffused in the ancient age, yet it was soon superseded by the trireme, more useful and complete.

Triremes
The triremes were the real spine of the Roman navy. Fast and agile, very easy to control, the trireme was the most diffused battleship in the Mediterranean until the Middle Ages.
More than 40 metres long, its width was about 6 metres: these dimensions provided the room necessary to place infantry weapons, simply fixed on the deck, and a century of navy infantrymen (80 soldiers). Under the deck rowed the oarsmen (up to 170) placed on three overlying levels. Their conditions were extremely precarious, even if far better than the ones of the slaves assigned to the cleansing of the cloacas or to the furnaces under the baths.

Quadriremes and quinqueremes
The quadrireme and quinquereme were similar in dimensions (48 metres long, 8 metres large, and a draught of one meter for the former, little more for the latter) were the ironclads of the epoch. Each of them had two corvii (one to the stem and one to the stern), several siege-arms on the deck (ballistae and little onagers) and one or two wooden towers to let the archers shoot from a high (and therefore favourable) position.
The quadrireme had 240 oarsmen, 15 sailors and 120 navy infantrymen in armour.
The quinquereme kept 300 oarsmen, 50 sailors and 120 infantrymen below deck.

Hexaremes
There were ships assigned to the transport of the general staff of the army, i.e. the admiral and high-ranked officials; however they took part in the battles very rarely. Their function was, above all, that of intimidating the enemy. Despite this “demonstrative” role, the hexareme was anyhow completely equipped, and very massive in its dimensions.
It has been conjectured the existence of the decireme, but the sources haven’t been verified yet by archaeological discoveries.

Liburna
The name liburna comes from the Liburnians (the pirates of Dalmatia). It was a middle-sized ship, but had the advantage of being slim, fast and very handy; suitable for pursuits, for logistic support and quick transport of troops. In fact, the liburna was often employed in fluvial flotillas on the limes of the Rhine and the Danube, and for the hunting of the pirates in the Adriatic sea.

LEGIONAIRE OF THE MONTH

Hello all,
Jo, Tonina and I decided to change the Legionaire of the week in Legionaire of the month. Because of it is not always easy to decide who was the better in only one week and only one training or event. However the legionaire of the month will win a medal as prize.
So keep on acting in this way :)

CREWS OF THE SHIPS

The bulk of a ship's crew was formed by the rowers. Despite popular perception, the Roman fleet relied throughout its existence on rowers of free status, and galley slaves were usually not put at the oars, except in times of pressing manpower demands or extreme emergency, and even then, they were employed after they had been freed. In Imperial times, non-citizen freeborn provincials chiefly from nations with a maritime background such as Greeks, Phoenicians, Syrians and Egyptians formed the bulk of the fleets' crews.

HIGH OFFICERS
Each ship was commanded by a trierarchus , while squadrons were put under a nauarchus , who often appears to have risen from the ranks of the trierarchi. The post of nauarchus princeps appeared later in the Imperial period, and functioned either as a commander of several squadrons. Only in the 3rd century were these officers equated to the legionary centurions in status and pay, and could henceforth be transferred to a similar position in the legions.

HIGH COMMANDER
During the Republic, command of a fleet was given to a serving magistrate or promagistrate , usually of consular or praetorian rank. However, since these men were political appointees, the actual handling of the fleets and of separate squadrons was entrusted to their more experienced legates and subordinates. It was therefore during the Punic Wars that the separate position of praefectus classis ("fleet prefect") first appeared. Initially subordinate to the magistrate in command, after the fleet's reorganization by Augustus, the praefectus classis became procuratorial positions in charge the permanent fleets.

EQUIPAGGIO DELLA FLOTTA

La maggior parte di un equipaggio della nave era formato da vogatori. Nonostante la percezione popolare, la flotta romana fondava tutta la sua esistenza sulla presenza di vogatori di stato libero, e galeotti, solitamente non messi a remi, eccetto nei momenti di pressanti richieste di manodopera o di estrema urgenza, e anche allora, sono stati impiegati dopo che era stato liberato. In età imperiale i cittadini non nati liberi, provenienti da provincie di tradizione navale (Greci, Fenici, Egizi e Siriani), costituivano la maggior parte degli equipaggi.

ALTI COMANDANTI
Ogni nave era comandato da un trierarchus, mentre squadroni sono stati messi sotto una nauarchus, che spesso sembra essere promosso dai ranghi del trierarchi. La carica di nauarchus princeps apparve in seguito, durante il periodo imperiale, e ha funzionato come un comandante di diversi squadroni. Solo nel 3 ° secolo questi ranghi sono stati equiparati ai centurioni della Legione; avrebbero così potuto essere trasferiti nelle legione nello stesso ruolo.

ALTO COMANDO
Durante la Repubblica, il comando di una flotta era dato a un console o a un pretore.
Durante le Guerre Puniche il grado di Praefectus Classis ( "prefetto della flotta") apparve per la prima volta. Inizialmente subordinato al magistrato di comando, dopo la riorganizzazione della flotta operata da Augusto, il prefetto della flotta divenne il comandante in capo permanente della flotta. Tuttavia, i prefetti sono rimasti in gran parte nomine politiche, e nonostante la loro esperienza militare, di solito al comando di unità ausiliarie la loro conoscenza delle questioni della flotta era minimo, costringendoli a fare affidamento su i loro subalterni che erano soldati e militari di professione.

FLOTTE

La Marina romana aveva due basi principali e diverse basi provinciali; ciascuna base ospitava una flotta, marittima o fluviale.

Le due flotte principali avevano la funzione di controllare l'intero Mediterraneo, ed erano:

  • Classis Misenensis, di stanza a Miseno
  • Classis Ravennatis, di stanza a Ravenna

Ognuna era comandata da un prefetto di ordine equestre; il prefetto di Miseno era di grado superiore rispetto a quello di Ravenna.

Le flotte provinciali erano:

  • la Classis Britannica, che controllava il canale della Manica e le acque intorno alla Britannia;
  • la Classis Germanica, che era una flotta fluviale e controllava il Reno;
  • la Classis Pannonica, che era una flotta fluviale e controllava il Danubio;
  • la Classis Moesica, che controllava il mar Nero occidentale e parte del corso del Danubio;
  • la Classis Pontica, che controllava il mar Nero meridionale;
  • la Classis Syriaca, che controllava le coste della Siria, della Palestina e della Turchia meridionale;
  • la Classis Alexandrina, che controllava le coste dell'Egitto;
  • la Classis Mauretanica, che controllava le coste dell'Africa occidentale;
  • la Classis Libyca, che controllava i litorali libici.

LE NAVI ROMANE

Le navi facenti parte della marina romana si dividono in due categorie, naves longae e naves ceterae. Le prime per la guerra propriamente detta, le altre erano navi da trasporto e da carico. Sostanzialmente le navi da guerra romane erano delle versioni aggiornate e riviste delle navi greche, dunque biremi e triremi (ma anche modelli più grandi) con l'aggiunta di invenzioni tutte capitoline come il corvo e il rostro.

Bireme
: Conosciuta fin dal V secolo a.C., la bireme subì nel corso del tempo poche modifiche. Era (a seconda delle epoche) lunga circa 23/24 metri e larga poco più di 3, con due file di rematori seduti sulla stessa panca. Aveva una vela di forma quadrata e riusciva a raggiungere discrete velocità grazie al peso e alle dimensioni contenute. Discretamente diffusa nell'antichità, fu però presto soppiantata dalla più funzionale e completa trireme.

Trireme: Le triremi costituivano la vera "spina dorsale" della marina romana. Veloce e agile, molto manovrabile, la trireme fu l'imbarcazione da guerra più diffusa nel Mediterraneo fino al Medioevo. Lunga fino a oltre 40 metri era larga poco più di 6, dimensioni che garantivano anche lo spazio per posizionarvi armi da campo riadattate o semplicemente fissate sul ponte del nave, e una centuria (80 uomini) di fanti di marina. Sotto al tavolato del ponte, in condizioni molto precarie (ma mai quanto gli schiavi adibiti alla pulizia delle cloache o a quelli che lavoravano alle fornaci sotto le terme), remavano i vogatori (fino a 170) disposti su tre livelli sovrapposti.

Quadrireme e quinquireme
:

La quadrireme e la quinquireme erano due navi simili per dimensioni (48 metri di lunghezza per 8 di larghezza ed un pescaggio di 1 metro circa per la prima, poco di più per la seconda), erano le corazzate dell'epoca. Montavano due corvi (uno a prua l'altro a poppa), diverse armi da assedio sul ponte (baliste e piccoli onagri) e una o due vere e proprie torri in legno sul ponte, per permettere agli arceri di tirare da posizione rialzata (e quindi vantaggiosa).

La quadrireme aveva 240 vogatori, 15 marinai e 120 fanti di marina in armatura. La quinquireme portava sottocoperta 300 vogatori, con 50 marinai e 120 fanti.

Esareme: Vi erano anche navi che trasportavano lo Stato Maggiore dell'esercito, quindi ammiraglio e alti ufficiali, che non prendevano però parte agli scontri (se non in rari casi); avevano per lo più la funzione di deterrente per impressionare il nemico. Nonostante la funzione probabilmente "dimostrativa" era comunque armata di tutto punto ed imponente per dimensioni.

Si ipotizza anche l'esistenza di decireme ma le fonti sono ancora da verificare e confutare con eventuali riscontri archeologici.

Liburna: La liburna prende il nome dal popolo dei Liburni (pirati della Dalmazia). Era una nave di medie dimensioni ma aveva il vantaggio di essere stretta, veloce e molto manovrabile; adatta agli inseguimenti, al supporto logistico e al rapido trasporto di truppe. Fu infatti impiegata molto nelle flottiglie fluviali sul limes del Reno, del Danubio e nella caccia ai pirati dell'Adriatico.

STORIA DELLA FLOTTA ROMANA

I romani nacquero come insieme di tribù di pastori e agricoltori, ma ben presto, con l'ingrandirsi dei territori dominati in epoca repubblicana, Roma si trovò in competizione con la più grande potenza commerciale e navale che il mediterraneo aveva conosciuto fino ad allora: Cartagine.

Nel 260 a.C. Roma affrontò la sua prima vera battaglia navale: nei pressi di Milae (l'attuale Milazzo) la flotta cartaginese, nonostante fosse forte della sua plurisecolare esperienza venne battuta da quella romana appena istituita grazie all'ausilio di uno strumento che renderà Roma padrona del mediterraneo nei secoli seguenti: il corvo.

La vittoria nella Battaglia di capo Milazzo permise al console Gaio Duilio di celebrare il primo trionfo navale della storia di Roma. Lo stesso console fu onorato nel foro con una columna rostrata, adorna cioè dei rostri delle navi nemiche catturate.

Nei secoli che seguirono, Roma combatté molte altre battaglie in mare con alterne fortune, alcune non determinanti altre storicamente fondamentali, come quella della Battaglia di Azio (considerata l'ultima battaglia navale dell'antichità). Per molti secoli il Mediterraneo fu considerato a buon diritto "lago romano" ribattezzato mare nostrum. Tra gli impieghi della flotta romana vi fu quello durante le guerre macedoniche, in cui la flotta romana fu affiancata da quella del Regno di Pergamo e da quella di Rodi.

Con l'avvento dei Vandali per la prima volta la marina militare romana, largamente abbandonata nel V secolo, trovò un avversario che si dimostrò addirittura superiore. Nel 458 l'imperatore Maggioriano riorganizzò e riarmò due flotte, probabilmente la classis Misenensis e quella Ravennatis, ma la sua notevole flotta d'invasione dell'Africa fu distrutta per mano di traditori in Spagna. Nel 468 vi fu l'ultima e più grande operazione navale dell'antichità: sotto il comando del generale Basilisco, le flotte combinate d'Oriente e d'Occidente attaccarono i Vandali: i Romani avevano la situazione in pugno, quando i Vandali distrussero con un attacco notturno la flotta nemica.

mercoledì 29 ottobre 2008

PUNISHMENTS

Here are some examples of how legionaries were punished.

Minor punishments consisted in a fine, or in eating barley bread (that caused stomach-ache), or also in staying standing for a whole day outside the sleeping quarters, holding an object in hands.
Decimation was an extreme instrument of military discipline, imposed to entire divisions of the ancient Roman army to punish mutinies or acts of cowardice, killing a soldier every ten.
The word derives from the Latin “decimatio”, which meant “eliminating one every ten”.
The cohort which must be punished by decimation was divided in groups of ten legionaries; every one of these groups chose by chance one of its components, who was lapidated or beat by his companions.
As the castigation was completely casual, every soldier in the punished cohort risked death, regardless of military rank or tasks. Consequently, the thread of decimation, apart from scaring, obliged the legionaries to keep a determined behaviour in battles.
However, as the application of decimation reduced the strength of the division of ten percent, probably it was inflicted very rarely.

PUNIZIONI

Ecco degli esempi di come i legionari potevano essere puniti.

Le punizioni minori consistevano in una multa, far mangiare pane d'orzo ( che causava mal di stomaco), stare in piedi per un giorno intero fuori dalla "camerata" con un oggetto in mano.

La decimazione era uno strumento estremo di disciplina militare comminato ad interi reparti negli eserciti dell'antica Roma per punire ammutinamenti o atti di codardia, uccidendo un soldato ogni dieci. La parola deriva dal latino decimatio che significava "eliminare uno ogni dieci". La coorte che si voleva punire per decimazione era divisa in gruppi di 10 legionari; ciascun gruppo sceglieva a sorte uno di loro che veniva ucciso dagli altri commilitoni per lapidazione o a bastonate.
Poiché la punizione colpiva a caso, tutti i soldati della coorte punita correvano il rischio di essere uccisi, indipendentemente dal grado o dai compiti svolti. Di conseguenza la minaccia della decimazione oltre che spaventare obbligava i legionari a mantenere un comportamento risoluto in battaglia. Tuttavia, poiché l'applicazione della decimazione riduceva in un sol colpo la forza del reparto del dieci percento, si crede che essa fosse comminata molto raramente.

ONORIFICENZE

Spolia opima (in latino letteralmente "bottino abbondante") si riferisce all'armatura, alle armi e agli altri effetti che un generale romano aveva tratto come trofeo dal corpo del comandante nemico ucciso in singola tenzone. Benché i Romani riconoscessero e mettessero in mostra altre specie di trofei - quali le insegne ed i rostri delle navi nemiche -, le spolia opima erano considerate le più onorevoli da vincere e quelle che davano maggior fama a chi le conquistava.

Il trionfo era il massimo onore che nell'antica Roma veniva tributato con una cerimonia solenne al generale che avesse conseguito un'importante vittoria. Consisteva in un corteo formato dalle truppe vittoriose con alla testa il triumphator, il trionfatore.

La corona castrense (latino: corona castrensis, "corona d'accampamento"), detta anche corona vallare (latino: corona vallaris, "corona di vallo") era una corona romana utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero. Spettava al primo uomo che avesse scalato le fortificazioni di una accampamento nemico. La corona era realizzata in oro, in foggia di palizzata accuminata, tipica dei valli difensivi degli accampamenti.

La corona civica o corona di quercia (latino: corona querquensis) era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero romano, spettante a chi avesse salvato la vita a un cittadino romano. Realizzata in forma di serto di quercia, più anticamente leccio o ippocastano, la corona civica era la seconda onorificenza militare in ordine di importanza, dopo la corona obsidionalis, ed era assegnata a quel soldato che avesse salvato la vita di un cittadino romano in battaglia; recava la scritta Ob civem servatum. L'ottenimento di questa corona era un grande onore, ed era conseguentemente regolato da condizioni restrittive: per ottenere la corona il soldato doveva salvare un cittadino romano in battaglia, uccidere il nemico e mantenere la posizione occupata fino alla fine della battaglia. Non era possibile impiegare la testimonianza di un terzo, ma solo quella del cittadino salvato: questa condizione rendeva difficile l'ottenimento della corona, in quanto i soldati romani non erano inclini a riconoscere il gesto del loro camerata, in quanto sarebbero poi stati obbligati a portare loro deferenza.

La corona muraria (latino: corona muralis), detta anche corona turrita, quando vi compaiano anche delle torri stilizzate, era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero romano. Era il massimo simbolo di valore militare e spettava al primo uomo che avesse scalato le fortificazioni di una città nemica. La corona era realizzata in oro, in foggia di cinta muraria merlata e turrita. Era una delle maggiori onorificenze militari ed era assegnata solo dopo attenta indagine per individuare a chi spettasse il primato nella scalata delle mura. Tutt'oggi corone murarie sono utilizzate nell'araldica urbana e amministrativa di numerosi paesi.

La corona navale (latino: corona navalis o corona classica, da classis, cioè flotta), detta anche corona rostrata, era una corona utilizzata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero, spettante a chi avesse per primo arrembato una nave nemica o ad un ammiraglio vittorioso che avesse distrutto la flotta avversaria.

La corona ossidionale (latino: corona obsidionalis), detta anche corona d'erba (latino: corona graminea), era una corona romana usata come onorificenza della Repubblica e dell'Impero. Era il massimo simbolo di valore militare e spettava al comandante che avesse salvato un esercito assediato o a colui che avesse, con il proprio intervento, salvato un esercito dalla sicura distruzione. La corona era realizzata da un serto d'erba o fiori selvatici intrecciati, colti nei pressi del campo di battaglia, riprendendo in questo la consuetudine arcaica di premiare il vincitore nelle gare atletiche con una manciata d'erba del terreno di gara.

PUBLIO SESTIO BACULO (ENGLISH)

Here is what is known about Publius Sextius Baculus (the Roman name I chose for the role game).

Publius Sextus Baculus is a historical figure, who lived at the time of Julius Caesar. He was his Primus Pilus during the Gallic war and to him he was faithful until death (Baculus desperately tried to save Caesar from the conspiracy that, later, was successful in killing him at March Ides).


The following are some extracts from “De bello gallico” concerning Baculus.

Caesar proceeded, after encouraging the tenth legion, to the right wing; where he perceived that his men were hard pressed, and that in consequence of the standards of the twelfth legion being collected together in one place, the crowded soldiers were a hinderance to themselves in the fight; that all the centurions of the fourth cohort were slain, and the standard- bearer killed, the standard itself lost, almost all the centurions of the other cohorts either wounded or slain, and among them the chief centurion of the legion P. Sextius Baculus, a very valiant man, who was so exhausted by many and severe wounds, that he was already unable to support himself; he likewise perceived that the rest were slackening their efforts, and that some, deserted by those in the rear, were retiring from the battle and avoiding the weapons; that the enemy [on the other hand] though advancing from the lower ground, were not relaxing in front, and were [at the same time] pressing hard on both flanks; he also perceived that the affair was at a crisis, and that there was not any reserve which could be brought up, having therefore snatched a shield from one of the soldiers in the rear (for he himself had come without a shield), he advanced to the front of the line, and addressing the centurions by name, and encouraging the rest of the soldiers, he ordered them to carry forward the standards, and extend the companies, that they might the more easily use their swords. On his arrival, as hope was brought to the soldiers and their courage restored, while every one for his own part, in the sight of his general, desired to exert his utmost energy, the impetuosity of the enemy was a little checked.”


P. Sextius Baculus, who had led a principal century under Caesar (of whom we have made mention in previous engagements), had been left an invalid in the garrison, and had now been five days without food. He, distrusting his own safety and that of all, goes forth from his tent unarmed; he sees that the enemy are close at hand and that the matter is in the utmost danger; he snatches arms from those nearest, and stations himself at the gate. The centurions of that cohort which was on guard follow him; for a short time they sustain the fight together. Sextius faints, after receiving many wounds; he is with difficulty saved, drawn away by the hands of the soldiers. This space having intervened, the others resume courage so far as to venture to take their place on the fortifications and present the aspect of defenders.”


When they had now been fighting for more than six hours, without cessation, and not only strength, but even weapons were failing our men, and the enemy were pressing on more rigorously, and had begun to demolish the rampart and to fill up the trench, while our men were becoming exhausted, and the matter was now brought to the last extremity, P. Sextius Baculus, a centurion of the first rank, whom we have related to have been disabled by severe wounds in the engagement with the Nervii, and also C. Volusenus, a tribune of the soldiers, a man of great skill and valour, hasten to Galba, and assure him that the only hope of safety lay in making a sally, and trying the last resource. Whereupon assembling the centurions, he quickly gives orders to the soldiers to discontinue the fight a short time, and only collect the weapons flung [at them], and recruit themselves after their fatigue, and afterward, upon the signal being given, sally forth from the camp, and place in their valour all their hope of safety.”

martedì 28 ottobre 2008

MILITARY DECORATIONS

Spolia opima (or "rich spoils/trophies") refers to the armor, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general had stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single, hand-to-hand combat. Though the Romans recognized and put on display other sorts of trophies--such as standards and the beaks of enemy ships--spolia opima were considered the most honorable to have won and brought great fame to their captor.

A Roman triumph (triumphus, Old Latin triumpus, attested as the exclamation TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via Etruscan from the Greek θρίαμβος) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. Men who had received this accolade were called triumphators.

The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. During the Roman Republic, and the subsequent Principate, it was regarded as the second highest military decoration a citizen could aspire to (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard). It was reserved for men who saved the lives of fellow soldiers, and held the ground upon which he did this for the remainder of the engagement.

The Grass Crown or Blockade Crown (Latin: corona obsidionalis or corona graminea) was the highest and rarest of all military decorations in the Roman Republic and early Roman empire. It was presented only to a general or commander who broke the blockade around a beleaguered Roman army, thus saving a legion or the entire army. The crown was made from plant materials taken from the battlefield, including grasses, flowers, weeds, and various cereals, such as wheat; it was presented to the general by the army he had saved.

The Roman corona muralis (Latin: "walled crown") as used in antiquity was a golden crown, or a circle of gold intended to resemble a battlement, bestowed upon the soldier who first climbed the wall of a besieged city or fortress to successfully place the standard of the attacking army upon it.[2] The Roman mural crown was made of gold, and decorated with turrets[3], as is the heraldic version. Being one of the highest orders of military decorations, it was not awarded to a claimant until after a strict investigation.

The Castrensis crown was a decoration bestowed upon the soldier who first entered in the fortifications of an enemy castra. The crown was made by gold and looked like a palisade.

The Naval Crown (in Latin corona navalis), was a gold crown awarded to the first man who boarded an enemy ship during a naval engagement. In style, the crown was made of gold and surmounted with the beaks of ships. In heraldry a naval crown is mounted atop the shields of coats of arms of the naval vessels and other units belonging to some navies.

Publio Sestio Baculo (ITALIAN)

Eccovi quello che si sa di Publio Sestio Baculo, (nome romano da me scelto per il nostro gioco di ruolo).
Publio Sestio Baculo è un personaggio storico, contemporaneo di Caio Giulio Cesare. Era il suo Primus Pilus dalle guerre galliche e gli è rimasto fedelissimo fino alla morte (cercò disperatamente di salvare Cesare dal complotto che poi gli causò la morte).
Eccovi alcuni estratti presi dal De bello gallico in cui si parla di lui:

"Cesare, che dopo aver esortato la X legione, si era portato all'ala destra, come vide i suoi incalzare ed i soldati intralciarsi a vicenda, perché le insegne della XII legione erano state ammassate in un sol luogo, tutti i centurioni della quarta coorte erano stati uccisi, caduto il vessillifero perduta l'insegna, quasi tutti i centurioni delle altre legioni caduti o feriti, e tra questi il primipilo Publio Sestio Baculo, un uomo coraggiosissimo, così coperto di gravi ferite da non riuscire più a reggersi in piedi, mentre gli altri erano senza forze e non pochi della retroguardia, abbandonato il combattimento, si allontanavano per schivare i proiettili, mentre i nemici non smettevano di avanzare frontalmente rimontando il colle, né alleggerivano la pressione sui fianchi; come vide che la situazione era critica e che non aveva nessuna possibilità di mandare rinforzi, preso lo scudo ad uno dei soldati della retroguardia, perché era venuto sin là senza scudo, avanzò in prima linea e, chiamando per nome i centurioni, spronando gli altri soldati, ordinò di far avanzare le insegne e distanziare i manipoli, di modo che i nostri potessero più agevolmente maneggiare le spade. La sua comparsa riaccese la speranza nei soldati e li rianimò, perché ciascuno, pur trovandosi in una situazione di estremo pericolo, voleva dar prova del proprio valore al cospetto del suo generale: così si poté in parte contenere l'assalto."

"Era stato lasciato nel presidio, malato, Publio Sestio Baculo, che era stato centurione primipilo sotto Cesare, del quale abbiamo fatto menzione a proposito delle precedenti battaglie, ed erano già quattro giorni che non prendeva cibo. Questi, preoccupato per la propria e per la comune salvezza, esce inerme dalla tenda, vede che i nemici ci sono addosso e che la situazione e gravissima, afferra le armi da chi gli stava accanto e si piazza davanti alla porta. I centurioni della coorte di guardia lo seguono e, per un po', tutti insieme, reggono all'assalto. Ferito gravemente, Sestio perde i sensi e, trascinato a fatica a braccia, svenuto, viene messo in salvo. Nel frattempo gli altri prendono coraggio quanto basta per prendere posizione sulle fortificazioni e dare almeno l'impressione di essere dei difensori."

"
Publio Sestio Baculo, centurione primipilo, che già citammo nella battaglia contro i Nervi, aveva subito parecchie ferite e così pure Gaio Voluseno, tribuno, uomo sia di grande saggezza, sia di grande valore accorrono (da Galba) e mostrano [che] una sola è la speranza di salvezza: tentare il tutto per tutto con una sortita. [avendo] fatto improvvisamente una sortita da tutte le porte non lasciano ai nemici [nemmeno] la facoltà di capire cosa (stesse succedendo) né di raccogliere i loro caduti. Uccisi più di un terzo dei nemici, mettono in fuga i rimanenti che erano atteriti."

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK3

This week the winner is Alekso Minotaur that won the "Last man standing" at the training last Friday.
This time was hard to choose the winner, I am very happy that many people was at the training.

mercoledì 22 ottobre 2008

Different outfits for SL Legionaires rank by rank

Here there are the different outfits that are present in the Legio. To have a new one you have to be promoted.

RECRUIT OUTFIT: it has no armour and helm and it has wodden gladius and shield

SIMPLE MILITES OUTFIT: it has an armour, a simple helm, real gladius, metal shield, and a belt.

DECURION OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because Decurio can dress a cloack with the armour and he has the particular crested helm.

OPTIO OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the particular helm. It has also the reversed scabbard, as officer.


CENTURIO OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the particular helm, the chain mail with medals on it, the balteus (different belt from the others), the graves. Centurio can dress also an armour when he wants.

PRIMUS OUTFIT: it is different from the previous one because of the light golden helm and the different balteus.

lunedì 20 ottobre 2008

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK 2

Another week is past and so... here it is the second Legionaire of the week nomination!
The winner is.... Revo Morales, who was also promoted from Recruit to Milites.
He was both at the Triumph and at the training of Friday.
Picture coming soon....

lunedì 13 ottobre 2008

SIGNUM HUNT AND TRIUMPH

TO ALL LEGIONARIES AND AUXILIARY UNITS:

AFTER THE BATTLE OF THE SIGNUM BARBARIANS LEAVED THE VILLAGE, IT'S TIME NOW TO SEARCH AND GET BACK OUR SIGNUM.
IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO HAVE IT BACK, BECAUSE WE WILL CARRY IT IN THE TRIUMPH.


SIGNUM HUNT wednesday 15th october, 1pm slt
TRIUMPH thursday 16th october, 1pm slt


YOU DONT NEED TO SIGN UP FOR THE SIGNUM HUNT, JUST ATTEND AT THE ROMAN FORT IN BRITANNIA (YEOL SIM).
YOU NEED TO SIGN UP FOR THE TRIUMPH, SO THAT WE CAN GIVE YOU ISTRUCTIONS, TO SIGN UP, CLICK ON THE SCROLL (SIGN UP BOARD) AT OUR LEGION FORT IN OSTIA (TRANSTIBERIM SIM), OR RSVP ACHILLE BACK OR SPACIVA IVANOVA.

________________________________________________________________________

SIGNUM HUNT RULES:

THE RESEARCH WILL BE ORGANIZED IN TEAMS, AN OFFICER WILL LEAD A GROUP OF MILITES AND GIVE ISTRUCTIONS, MILITES WILL HAVE TO OBSERVE THE ORDERS.

THE REASEARCH HAS TO LOOK REAL, THIS MEANS DONT JUMP AROUND LIKE KANGAROOS, DONT CHEAT USING THE CAMERA CONTROL, ACT LIKE THE ANCIENT LEGIONARY AS YOU ARE.


HOW TO GET THE SIGNUM:

ONCE YOU WILL FIND THE SIGNUM, BUY IT FOR 0L$, THEN TAKE IT. ANNOUNCE IT IMMEDIATLY TO YOUR TEAM LEADER. THE TEAM LEADER WILL REPORT IT TO THE HUNT ORGANIZER.


PRIZES:

THE SOLDIER THAT WILL FIND THE SIGNUM WILL HAVE THE GREAT HONOR TO CARRY IT DURING THE TRIUMPH AND WILL RECIVE ALSO A MONEY PRIZE OF 1000L$.

____________________________________________________________________________

IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTION, CONTACT Achille Back or Brodbiz Bagration

MILITARY STRATEGIES



WEDGE FORMATION: line thinned to provicde concentration in centre to smash through enemy lines.

SINGLE LINE DEFENCE: maniples all deployed in a single line to overlap enemy flanks and protect own flanks.

CANNAE TACTIC (WEAK CENTER): center left weak deliberately to envite enemy center to attack and envelopment. Require a tactical reserve behind apparently weak center.

ZAMA TACTIC: channels left beetween maniples for specific propouse of directing enemy war elephants away from the heavy infantry.

STRONG RIGHT FLANK: Strenght would be concentrated on the right flank, wich would attemp to break enemy left flank,and than roll up the line attacking the enemys from the rear.

PROTECTED FLANK: one flank protected by a natural barrier. Light infantry and cavallery all concentrated on the opposit flank.

THE ROMAN ARMY

I would like to make a very short description of the Roman army. Basicaly, there were two "kinds" of army units, from a geographical point of view: the army from Roma and the army from the provinces.
THIS IS ABOUT THE ARMY IN ROME

In Rome, there were three kind of units:

- the praetorian cohortes
- the cohorttes urbanes
- the cohortes of vigiles

PRAETORIAN COHORTES:
- elite troops, defending the emperor; they had a big monthly earn.
- they were commanded by 1 o 2 praefecti praetorio, of equestrian rank, under the direct emperor's orders.
- commanding officers:
- 1 tribune
- 6 centuriones, of a lower rank
- 1 centurion (trecenarius) - of a higher rank, who commanded 300 speculatores - the emperor's personal guard
- 1 princeps castrorum
- in the cohortes there were also knights (equites)

In 27 BC, Augustus creates 9 cohortes (I - IX), and in 2 BC, the praefectus praetorio. Tiberius will make on the Esquilin an auxiliary camp, of 16 ha. The praetorian cohortes took part in the civil wars from 68 - 69 AD; Vitellius will increase their number to 16, but Vespasian will lower them again to 9.
They had a role in Commodus' assassination in 192. Septimius Severus will reorganize them, so in the 3rd century their role will fade. In 312, after the reform of Maxentius, Constantine the Great will dissmiss them.

COHORTES URBANES:

Mainly within the cities; Augustus created in 13 AD these troops, in Rome were 3 cohortes, in Lugdunum and Carthago, 2.
They were in charge with the city guard. In the first century, they were lead by:
- the praefectus Urbis (senatorial rank)
- 1 tribune
- 6 centuriones
Their power was of 500 to 1000 men (the maximum of 1000 under Septimius Severus).
In 20 AD, they were camped in the praetorian camp until the reign of Aurelianus (270 - 275), then they were moved in Castra Urbana (on the Mars field) until the 6th century AD.

THE COHORTES OF VIGILES:

Augustus created 7 cohortes, for being a night police and firemen.
Until the 3rd century, they were not considered as soldiers.
They were commanded by a praefectus vigilium, of an equestrian rank, helped by sub-prefect.
In the 3rd century AD, they were about 1000 men.

The emperors created also other troops for their personal security:

custodes: about 500 soldiers (Germans and barbarians), created by Augustus. They were knights, commanded by 1 decurion and 1 tribune.
speculatores: 300 personal guards, camped in the praetorian camp, under the command of the praefuctus praetorio.
equites singulares Augusti: the emperor's guard, organized by Trajan as a numerus (an auxiliary troop), with 500 to 1000 men, commanded by decuriones, princeps decurion and a tribunus. They were under the command of the praefectus praetorio.
frumentarii: organized by Trajan, they were carrying letters and orders, but also spyes. They were a subdivion of a numerus, and in number of about 100 men.
statores Augusti: organized like a numerus, they were a military police.

ABOUT THE ARMY OUT OF ROMA DURING THE EMPIRE OF AUGUSTUS
The Legio was based on a cohors that was formed by 3 Manipuli (astati,principi e triari) positionated in 3 lines:
1 in the first line there were the ASTATI that was the youngest, more impetuous and exuberant; therefore more suited to the first collision although less experienced in the use of weapons, manoeuvre and less resilient and tenacious. The ASTATI had a great semi-cylindrical shield (SCUTUM) high around 1.30 m. and 0.80 m wide, covered with leather and reinforced iron edges. They had also two lances launched by 20 - 30 meters above the enemy before the collision: (PILUM) and GLADIO (short double-edged weapon). They used to wear metal helmet and a pectoral, whether they could afford even a shell: the Lorica Segmentata. This while maintaining the free movement of the torso and arms, was a heavy protection that penalized the fighter. the Segmentata offered a good protection against the most hits of arrows and swords, especially coming from above. But its structure made it difficult to manage during the time, for that reason in the late period it was not used anymore.

2 in the second there were more mature soldiers, the PRINCIPES that completed in experience and consistency what the first line missed. They represented the best of the Roman Army. They were armed and "armoured" similarly, but instead of carrying javelins, they used longer lances (HASTA)

3. in the third there were veterans, TRIARI, choosen of many battles that expected, with a knee on the ground, the outcome of the battle. They were armed in the same way as Principes.

These 3 groups were the heavy infantry of the Roman Empire. The rest of the army was made up of lightweight infantry (Veliti) and the cavalry.

Each soldier had to take a "survival kit" consisting of: roll, coat, 3 days food rations, bronze tin, pan for water, wicker basket to collect the earth, accepts, picket to excavate the trenches and build fortifications, everything had a total weight of 40 kg.

The strength of the Roman Empire was also the ability to make ingenieristiche works, such as bridges, fortifications or siege machines in a short time.

SIEGE MACHINES
The balista (Latin ballista, in derived from the greek ballistēs, from ballo "pull") it is a big siege machine invented by the Greeks and mainly used by the Romans. It throwed big darts or javelins or spherical stones individually or for small groups, depending on the type of model.

siege towers

Catapulte

domenica 12 ottobre 2008

EQUIPMENT OF THE LEGIONAIRES

*The Lorica in one of its variants: Lorica hamata, Lorica squamata, Lorica segmentata, Lorica musculata were designed to be flexible but robust.
* One or scutum shield (with special decorations for each unit)
* A balteus or Cingulum militaris (belt to hold weapons and for decoration)
* A helmet, called cassis (with protections for neck and ears). The helmet could also have a crest, and usually for petty officers.
* The gladius Gladio or a sword with a blade about 50-55 cm long, the weapon par excellence of the Roman legionary, to the right of the belt.
* The pilum or the javelin, who had the task after the launch of thrust in the shield's opponent who was forced to make private and therefore beneficial to the body for Legionnaires' body.
* The pugio dagger that was brought to balteus hooked.
* Caligae or sandals that is by running and a red tunic was common to all the legionnaires.



Lorica Hamata; Lorica Squamata; Lorica Segmentata; Lorica Muscolata



Scutum; Balteus with Pugio; Gladius


Pilum


Cassis; Decurio Cassis; Optio Cassis; Centurio Cassis


Caligae

THIS SPACE IS FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE LEGIO

Dear members, here it is a space where you are able to write every suggestions, qaestions or news about the Legio. Use the "commenti" link (just on the right of the time of the pubblication of the post) to write. I am waiting for reading you all.

sabato 11 ottobre 2008

LEGIONAIRE OF THE WEEK

Everyone from today every week will be nominated the Legionaire of the week. Every Saturaday I will post the name and the picture of who acted better or was more usefull for our group.
This week, for the great work done for organize the battle the nomination goes to Achille Back.

LATIN DRILLS FOR THE TRAININGS

Mandata captate: Literally, “observe the orders.” This is the command we use for “attention!” You stand straight, eyes front, shield held by its grip in the left hand, pilum held vertically in the right first just below the square block.

Laxate: “At ease.” You may set your shield down and rest the butt spike of your pilum on the ground. No slouching or chattering, though!

Ad gladium, clina: [cleena] To the right (sword side), face! Push off with your left toe, pivot on your right heel, and turn smartly to the right.

Ad scutum, clina: To the left (shield side), face! Reverse of the above.

Accelera: Speed up.

Tarda: Slow down

Sta: Halt. Stop on the second step after the command is uttered.

Dimitto: Dismissed.

LEGIO ACTIVITIES

The Legio group makes trainings and fights. We have games and tournaments like "last man standing", "catch the enemy flag", "treasure hunt". We have also to controll that noone will violate the laws of Roma and of our group. We reprouduct the ancient festivities with ceremonies.
We have an event every Friday at 22.00 European central time, 1 PM SL time.
Here it is the link to our fort
http://slur.com/secondlife/ROMA%20Transtiberim/127/204/42
Just copy the address and paste it on the address bar of Internet Explorer (or other browser) and go to the page. You will have only to click and you will recive the landmark of the fort in your inventory in Second Life.

HISTORY OF REAL LEGIO XIII

Under the late Republic
Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts.
During the Gallic wars (58-51 BC), Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the siege of Gergovia, and while not specifically mentioned in the sources, it is not unreasonable to assume that Legio XIII was also present for the Battle of Alesia.
After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, and demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career, or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy. The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Dyrrhachium (48 BC) and Pharsalus (48 BC). After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, and the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants. However, the legion was recalled for the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) and the final Battle of Munda (45 BC). After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, and gave them farmlands in Italy.

Under the Empire
Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with rebellion of Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey) in Sicily.
Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina ("twin", a common appellation for legions constituted from portions of others) after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium.[2] Augustus then sent the legion to Burnum (modern Knin), in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea.
In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona (now Ljubljana) in Pannonia, where they dealt with local rebellions.
After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelica (Augsburg), Germania Superior, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.
Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45; the legion camped at Poetovio (modern Ptuj, Slovenia).
In the year of the four emperors (69), XIII Gemina supported first Otho and then Vitellius, two of the defeated emperors, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum.
Under Trajan the Legion took part in both Dacian wars (101-102, 105-106), and it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia (in Apulum, modern Alba Iulia, Romania) to garrison it.
Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy. The emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, and showing the legion's lion (259-260).[3] Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem.[4]
In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, and restationed in Dacia Aureliana.
In the 5th century, according to Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.[5]

ITALIANO
La Legio XIII Gemini fu cretata da Giulio Cesare nel 57 a.C., in vista della campagna contro le popolazione belgiche, in uno dei suoi primi interventi nei conflitti interni alle popoolazioni galliche.
Durante le guerre galliche (58 a.C.-51 a.C.) la legione partecipò alla battaglia contro i Nervi, all'assedio di Gergovia, e anche se le fonti non la citano, è ragionevole pensare che la XIII Gemini partecipasse anche alla battaglia di Alesia.
Dopo le campagne in Gallia, il Senato romano rifiutò il secondo consolato, intimandogli di abbandonare il comando delle legioni e di ritornare a Roma per affrontare il giudizio del senato. Costretto a decidere se abbandonare la sua carriera politica o causare una guerra civile, Cesare con la sua Legio XIII Gemina attraversò il Rubicone dando inizio alla guerra civile contro la fazione degli ottimati.
La legione rimase fedele a Cesare durante la guerra civile contro la fazione senatoriale guidata da Pompeo. La legio fu attiva durante tutto il conflitto, combattendo la battaglia di Durazzo e quella di Farsalo nel 48 a.C..
Dopo la decisiva vittoria di Farsalo, la legione fu sciolta e i legionari "pensionati" con la tradizionale assegnazione di terre. La legione fu però richiamata in armi nel 46 a.C. per prendere parte alla battaglia di Tapso e ala successiva Battaglia di Munda nel 45 a.C.. Dopo quest'ultima battaglia, Cesare sciolse nuovamente la legione premiandola con l'assegnazione di fattorie in Italia.
Durante l'impero
Augusto ricostruì nuovamente la legione nel 41 a.C. per affrontare la ribellione di Sesto Pompeo, figlio di Pompeo in Sicilia. La Legio XIII acquisì il cognomen Gemina (gemella appunto, che era l'appellativo comune per indicare le legioni costituite a partire da porzioni di altre legioni), dopo che fu rinforzata con i legionari veterani provenienti da altre legioni dopo la battaglia di Azio.[2] Augusto quindi inviò la legione a Burnum (l'odierna Tenin) nella provincia romana dell'Illiria (oggi in Croazia). Nel 16 a.C., la legione fu trasferita ad Emona, (Lubiana) in Pannonia dove dovette fronteggiare le ribellioni locali. Dopo la distrastrosa Battaglia della foresta di Teutoburgo nel 9, la legione fu inviata come rinforzo a Augusta Vindelica, l'odierna Augusta nella provincia di Germania Superior, per prevenire ulteriori attachi delle tribù germaniche.
L'imperatore Claudio la spostò nuovamente in Pannonia intorno al 45; la legione era di stanza a Poetovio, Ptuj nell'odierna Slovenia. Nell'Anno dei quattro imperatori, la XIII Gemina si schierò prima con Otone e poi con Vitellio, entrambi sconfitti, nelle due battaglie di Bedriaco. Nel 89, Domiziano trasferì la legione, che si trovava accampata a Vienna, in Dacia ad Alba Iulia, per presidiare la regione. La legione fu poi spostata quando la Dacia fu evaquata, e riposizionata nella Dacia Aureliana.
Vexillationes della XIII Gemina combatterono sotto l'imperatore Gallieno nell'Italia settentrionale. L'imperatore per celebrare la legione coniò un antoninianus con il Leone della legio (259-260).[3] Un'altra vexillatio era presente nell'armata Impero delle Gallie sotto il comando di Victorinus: anche questo imperatore coniò una moneta d'oro per celebrare la legio e il suo emblema.[4]
Nel V secolo, secondo la Notitia Dignitatum, la legio tertiadecima gemina si trovava in Babilonia d'Egitto, una fortezza strategica sul Nilo, lungo il confine tradizionale tra l'alto e il medio Egitto, sotto il comando del comes limitis Aegypti.[5]

RANKS

PREFECT OF THE LEGIO: Vectus Margulis
SCRIBA OF PREFECT: Tonina Rodenberger
PRIMUS PILUS: Brodbiz Bagration (Centurio of the first century)
PRINCEPS: Achille Back (Centurio of the second century)
HASTATUS: Zillatron Glume (Centurio of the third century)
OPTIO: Toe Fermi, Jaen DeCuir
IMMUNES: Ocean Lynagh

AMAZZONS

PILUS PRIOR AMAZZONS: Spaciva Ivanova
CENTURIO: Jo Soler, Tonina Rodenberger
OPTIO: Melanippe Karas
VEXILIFER: Angelia Rees
TESSERARIUS: Popea Heron

CAVALERY

TRIBUNUS: Valerianus Gaudio, Franck Gazov
CENTURIO: Brodbiz Bagration, Achille Back, Vido Sciarri, Douglas Niles